237. The Deputy Commissioner, who is also District
Magistrate and District Registrar,
has sanctioned staff of four Assistants, but the work of the head-quarters District and of the city has in late years increased and at present the staff consists of three Assistant Comissioners
of the Indian Civil Service, one of whom is under training, and of four Extra
Assistant Commissioners, including the Excise Assistant who acts in Wardha District also. At Kamptee, where there is a large town as well as a cantonment, the Cantonment Magistrate acts also as Sub-divisional Magistrate. The District is at present divided into our tahsils, which are grouped as three subdivisions under Assistants who act as Sub-divisional Magistrates; But three of the tahsils are unmanageably large and sanction has recently been obtained to the institution of a fifth tahsil, with headquarters at Saoner town, which will be inaugurated as soon as its court-houses can be built. The Nagpur tahsil contains 559 revenue villages, of which 142 are uninhabited, Ramtek 560 with 119 uninhabited, Umrer 678 with 229 uninhabited, and Katol 494 with 134 uninhabited. The new Saoner tahsil will contain 271 villages excised from Nagpur, Ramtek and Katol. The total number of separate mahals [ Villages or parts of villages separately assessed to revenue.]
was at settlement 2756. Each tahsil has a tahsildar and a naib-tahsildar, and at present for the assistance of the tahsildars in plague-prevention there is a staff of one Plague Superintendent and four Deputy Superintendents or naib-tahsildars. The civil court staff of the District consists of a District Judge, an Additional
District Judge and 3 Subordinate Judges. There are also Small Cause Court Judges at Nagpur and Kamptee. The former has a Registrar as his Assistant. There is ordinarily one munsiff
for each tahsil, but owing to the pressure of work at Ramtek and Katol two munsiffs in each place have been appointed. The tahsildars are Additional Judges in the courts of the munsiffs for civil suits involving land-lords and tenants. The work of the criminal courts in the District is very heavy, and cannot be overtaken by the stipendiary magistrates. In the city two Honorary Magistrates have first class powers and separate courts, and there are also four benches, one with first-class and three with second-class powers. In Kamptee there are two Honorary Magistrates. At Ramtek, Saoner, Katol and Kalmeshwar there are benches, and two Honorary Magistrates sit singly in the towns of Umrer and Mowar. The Divisional Forest Officer has charge of the forests of both Nagpur and Wardha Districts. All the Divisional Officers of Nagpur Division have their headquarters at Nagpur.
238. At the 30 years' settlement no regular land record
staff was appointed for the District, the malguzars or village land-lords being held responsible for the rendition of village papers showing the names of tenants, the area under each crop, and the rents collected. This arrangement did not work well. The returns filed by the malguzars were untrustworthy and largely understated the rent-collections, and they were written up by temporary clerks after superficial enquiry from the people without actual field-to-field visitation. The patwari system was first introduced in 1884, when 259 patwaris were appointed for the District and a patwari cess was levied from the malguzars at 5 per cent., the tenants contributing at the rate of a kuro (20 lbs.) of grain per holding. At last settlement it was found to be necessary to add 11 more charges and to raise the total number of patwaris to 270. of whom 69 belong to the
Nagpur tahsil, 66 to Katol, 67 to Umrer, and 68 to Ramtek. There are no hereditary patwaris in the District. At settlement the rate of the cess on the malguzars was reduced from 5 to 3½ per cent. and that of the tenants was fixed at 3 pies per rupee of rent. The
patwaris collected their own dues from the tenants and received the remainder of their pay from the treasury. But this arrangement was abolished last year with the remission of the patwari cess and the patwaris are now paid from Provincial revenues like other Government servants. The abolition reduced the taxation of the District by Rs. 33,000 per annum. The supervising staff consists of a Superintendent of Land Records and an Assistant Superintendent, with 12 Inspectors. The head-quarters of Revenue Inspectors are at Pardi, Bon, and Kalmeshwar in Nagpur tahsil, at Mansar, Khapa, and Tharsa in Ramtek, Pipla, Jalalkhera, and Kondhali in Katol, and at Kuhi, Bela and Bhiwapur in Umrer tahsil. Each has on an average 23 patwaris to supervise in 185 revenue villages. In each patwari's circle the average number of villages is 9. The pay of patwaris is usually only Rs. 132 per annum and as the work is hard and now continuous throughout the year, this is not sufficient to attract capable young men to the service. The work has developed into two branches, one being that of returning seasonal crop reports for the Agricultural Department, which is fairly well done, and the other being the maintenance of land tenure records for the use of the civil and revenue courts, a responsible business not very effectively performed.
239. The record of serious crime in the District is not a
heavy one. During the ten years ending with 1906 the average number of persons convicted of offences affecting human life was 10, of robbery and dacoity 12, and of grievous hurt 21. But offences against property are exceedingly numerous. The figures for house-breaking and theft averaged 274 annually from 1900 to 1906, The average annual number
of criminal cases disposed of during the 10 years ending with 1906 was 4096, of which 1656 were cognisable by the police and 2440 non-cognisable. These are large numbers. Many of them are cases under the Police Act and the Municipalities
Act, due to the necessity of enforcing a fair standard of decency and sanitation in the towns, and many also are due to the nuisance of cattle-trespass, which is very prevalent in both towns and villages. Except in the city and on the railways there is no great amount of professional crime, but there is much of what may be called domestic crime. Most of the murders are wife-murders or husband-poisonings and cases of suicide or attempted suicide on the part of women are numerous. This tendency is due chiefly to the unsatisfactory social arrangements of the Koshti caste, which is very numerous in the District. A Koshti usually has several wives, and many children, a custom imposed upon him by industrial conditions which force his hand-loom into competition with the machine-loom. He must have many helpers and his house becomes rather a factory than a home. The custom has other unsatisfactory results but those which come most often before the courts are the assaults and small riots between individuals or parties which arise from quarrels about the women. Cheating in marriage contracts is common and the elopement of married women
more common. Agrarian riots also are numerous, and for this fact the only
apparent reason is that the civil courts and their emissaries do not carry
weight in the villages. It is probable that the impending revenue settlement and its local enquiries into rights and possession may reduce the number of recrudescent agrarian
disputes. Civil litigation is heavier and more intricate than in most other Districts and parties are, as a rule, in contested cases represented by pleaders whose services on moderate fees are readily available. Although
Nagpur is an important trading centre, commercial suits are few, as parties
prefer to settle them out of court by means of panchayats. The bulk of the litigation is confined to petty suits
below Rs. 100 in value. Mortgages generally provide for the sale and not for the
foreclosure of the mortgaged property. In 1862 only 6583 suits were filed, but the number of institutions rose steadily till it reached 21,606 in 1887. Since then there has been a gradual decline and in 1906 the number of suits fell as low as 9,579, the lowest figure for the District since 1868. The decrease in litigation is attributed partly to the improved prosperity of the middle and labouring classes owing to the industrial development of the District and partly to the passing of the Tenancy Act of 1898, whereby the right of transfer of land was materially curtailed.
240. The Deputy Commissioner has been since 1904 the
District Registrar. Under him
there are seven registration offices,
at Nagpur, Kamptee, Ramtek, Umrer, Narkher, Katol, and
Saoner, each in charge of a sub-registrar who receives a
fixed salary and also a commission of 3 annas, and in the
Nagpur office 5 annas, on each document registered. The
number of documents registered annually was over 5400 in
1890-91, but it fell below 4100 in 1900-01 owing chiefly to
the operation of the revised Tenancy Act. In 1903 it had
fallen to 3,900. The average receipts from registration for
the decade ending with 1900-01 were over Rs. 21,000, the
maximum being Rs. 26,000 in 1895-96, but they fell to Rs.
18,000 in 1904.
241. The following statement shows receipts under the
principal heads of revenue for the
decade ending with 1900-1901 and for four subsequent years separately:-
For the decade 1891-92 to 1900-01
The cesses of the first period are amalgamated with the land revenue. Since
1904-05, they have disappeared owing to the abolition of the patwari cess and of
the additional rate. There remain only the school, road and post office cesses,
very small in amount, which go to the District Council. The land revenue also is
now small, out of proportion to the agricultural profits, but it will be
revised within a few years. The amount of income tax is exceedingly small for so large and prosperous a District, and it also stands in need of revision. On the other hand the income from forests has been steadily improved and the excise revenue has been very greatly added to.
242. Up to the end of 1905-06 the supply of alcoholic
liquor for the District was from
three distilleries at Nagpur, Katol
and Umrer. From these liquor was issued to the retail vendors through the medium of 15 bonded warehouses. The Nagpur distillery supplied the warehouses of Nagpur and Ramtek tahsils, while Katol and Umrer had their own stills. The rates for liquor issued from the Nagpur warehouse were Rs. 3 per gallon for liquor 10° to 12° under-proof and R. 1-15 per gallon for 45° to 47° under-proof. At Katol and Umrer the rate was R. 1-5 for liquor 50° to 52° under-proof, the only strength of issue permitted. The manufacturing contractors were allowed no contract for the retail vend of liquor and the cost price allowed to them was one rupee per gallon of 10° to 12° under-proof, and nine annas for the 45° to 52° under-proof issue. From the beginning of the year 1906-07 the manufacturing contract was given to a Madras company. The cost price fixed was 15 annas per proof gallon and
the rate of duty was changed to Rs. 3-2. The issued strengths were fixed at 25° and 60° under-proof, and in the latter part of the year a strength of 45° under-proof was also introduced. Meanwhile the number of retail vend shops was greatly reduced. There were in 1904-05 no less than 418, there are now only 210. But the change of
system and the increased consumption of liquor have very greatly added to the revenue receipts. The consumption of foreign liquor is fairly considerable in Nagpur itself and in Kamptee town. The only other form of alcoholic liquor used in the District is tari, the revenue from which is very small. The number of shops for its sale has recently been reduced from 133 to 86.
The consumption of opium is large and is increasing. In 1904-05 there were 75 permanent and 11 temporary shops, the yield of revenue being Rs. 1,19,415. But the number of shops was reduced in 1906-07 to 54 with permanent licenses and one with a temporary license. The consumption of ganja is also on the increase. The number of shops in 1904-05 was 77, since reduced to 56. But 11 shops for the sale of charas are now to be opened in the principal towns.
243. The District Council of Nagpur consists of 7 members nominated by Government and of 15 elected members. Under it
are four Local Boards, one for each tahsil. Those at Nagpur, Ramtek, and Katol
consist of 3 nominated and 10 elected members, and that at Umrer of 3 nominated
and 11 elected members. The average income of the District Council for the
decade ending with 1901 was only Rs. 76,686, the principal sources of revenue being local rates Rs. 45,151, ferries Rs. 3975, cattle pounds Rs. 9573, and contributions from Provincial revenues Rs. 4199. In recent years the income has increased to about Rs. 1,10,050, partly owing to better collection of the rates since the famines, partly to a steady increase in the income from cattle pounds, but chiefly from supplementary grants from Provincial revenues. Most of the Council's expenditure is on schools, on roads, and on the upkeep of cattle pounds and dispensaries. For these and other necessary objects its funds have long been inadequate and they are from time to time supplemented from Provincial
revenues. It is unfortunate that the local rates are exceedingly small and that
the Council has no source of revenue, except perhaps the cattle pounds, which
can be developed. Lack of funds has hitherto prevented the employment of an
efficient staff for the supervision of its roads and building's, but with the
appointment of a Local Fund Engineer and by the aid of an enlarged grant from
Government it is hoped that better progress will be made. The proposal to place
all village markets under the control of the Council also promises to increase
its resources and its work. Meanwhile very considerable improvements have of
late years been effected, chiefly in the schools. Six large new buildings have
been erected, the most considerable being the schools of Narkher and Gumgaon, and the pay of teachers in the primary schools of the villages has been substantially increased. Most of the funds for road improvement have hitherto been handed over to the Public Works Department for expenditure on the main lines of traffic. The small sum handled by the Council is insufficient for the upkeep of its many roads, but a useful scheme of roadside arboriculture has recently been adopted. The District stands in need of dispensaries, and the Council has recently received two charitable donations which will be utilised on new dispensary buildings at Kuhi and Parseoni. The work of the District Council and of its Local Board members has for many years been excellent. In every part of the District gentlemen of good standing
and education come forward readily to undertake public duty. The development of
local self-government in the villages appears to depend merely on the
development of the sources of revenue and on the appointment of an engineering
244. Besides the Nagpur City andCivil Station, which
are practically two municipalities,
and the town of Kamptee, which is
administeredby a cantonment committee, there aresix
municipal towns in the District-Umrer, Ramtek, Saoner,
Khapa, Kalmeshwar and Mowar. Katol, the headquarters
of a tahsil, was a few years ago notified as a town area and
is now on its way to become a municipality.
245. The area of Nagpur City and Civil Station is now
above 20 square miles. In the
census of 1901 its population was
ascertained to be 127,734 souls, of whom 17,328 resided within the Civil Station. The municipal committee consists of 30 members, 10 of whom are nominated by Government while 20 are elected by the townspeople. There is also, for the administration of the Civil Station, a special standing sub-committee, consisting of 3 elected and 5 nominated members, which has separate powers and is practically a separate municipal committee. The income of both for
the decade ending with the year 1901 was Rs. 328,000, but the net income now, apart from the loans which are continually necessary, is just over four lakhs. Most of this comes from the octroi tax which is closely administered and which has considerably increased with the expansion of trade in spite of the disorganisation caused by several severe epidemics of plague. But there are other important sources of revenue. The following table shows
these and their growth:-
Income from fines under Special Acts.
Income from markets, land, &c.
Total gross income
Deduct refunds, chiefly of octroi tax.
The latter sum is now quite inadequate for the growing needs of the city but the taxation amounts to only about
Rs. 2-6 per head of population and can be considerably enhanced. Most of the
revenue is expended on the water-supply, on conservancy arrangements, on
drainage, street-lighting, and the improvement and maintenance of the roads. Small sums are contributed also to medical institutions and to schools. Of regular annual expenditure the chief items are those of Rs. 86,000 on conservancy, Rs. 29,000 on the upkeep of the 30 miles of metalled streets, and Rs. 26,000 on the maintenance of the present water-supply. But a large part
of the outlay is exigent and irregular and depends on the receipt of loans from Government. With these and savings from the annual outlay much has been done in the past to extend the water-supply, which in 30 years has called for 9 lakhs of special expenditure.
It is now quite inadequate and a new loan will be needed for the construction of a large second reservoir. The drainage of the city is a second problem which is under consideration. Since 1883 only Rs. 74,000 have been spent on this necessary branch of town-service, but a comprehensive scheme of drainage is now being formulated, and for the application of this another loan will be needed. In recent years, with the help of a special loan, much has been done towards the widening of lanes into streets, and the municipality has acquired considerable areas of land on which good houses are being built by private lessees. All the markets need extension, and for this purpose also a loan has been taken. The street-lighting is not yet good (it costs only Rs. 10,000 per annum), but this will be greatly improved if electric lights are provided from the power-house of the company which has contracted to lay tramways through the main streets. In recent years the city has undertaken several other enterprises. A fine Town Hall and Library have been built and a cotton market has been established near the rail-way station. Three steam fire engines have been bought and equipped and telephonic communication is being instituted. The prevention or restriction of the periodical epidemics of plague, has also, at considerable expense, engrossed
the attention of the municipal committee. In brief, the
city is in a state of rapid growth. Its finances do not
as yet keep pace with its growth, and its taxation should
speedily be doubled. The branch of taxation which at
present is most inadequate is the conservancy cess. The
Civil Station is more heavily taxed than the city and it
is in some ways better equipped than the latter, but its
present income of Rs. 70,000 is not sufficient for its growing
needs. A large part of the Station is the property of
Government and when all the new Government buildings
are completed and their grounds laid out the appearance of
the place will be very greatly improved.
246. The largest of the outlying municipal towns is
Umrer, which has a population of
15,943. Its committee consists of 4
nominated and 10 elected members. For the decade ending
with 1901 the average income of the town was Rs. 17,400
but by 1906-07 it had risen to Rs. 26,000. Most of this is
derived from an octroi tax but there are receipts also from
conservancy cess, cattle-registration fees, cattle-pounds and
the fishing rents of the large lake round which the town
lies. The incidence of taxation is only one rupee per head
of population. Much of the municipal revenue is spent on
the schools, comprising an important middle school which will
probably be converted into a high school, and its three
primary branch schools. These are well maintained. The
conservancy arrangements have recently been improved, a
small veterinary dispensary, one of the few in the District,
has been established, and a new and enlarged market-site is
being equipped. The committee also has acquired by
purchase the whole of the town site from the malguzar, H.
M. Malak of the Mehdibag institution. This gentleman has
lately presented the town with two new buildings one for
use as a rest-house and one as a library. Umrer is a
charmingly picturesque town, its finances are in flourishing
condition, and its trade is certain to increase largely now
that it has secured railway communication with Nagpur. Besides being a centre of agricultural and general trade it possesses an important weaving industry.
247. The town of Ramtek is noted chiefly for its picturesque situation on the side of a steep hill which is crowned by a fort and temple buildings. Its municipal committee consists of 11 members, of whom three are nominated by Government. The average annual revenue of the decade ending with 1901 was only Rs. 8,400, although the population in that year numbered 8,732. But by 1906-07 the income had risen to Rs. 14,600, chiefly from the octroi
tax, but also from a conservancy cess, cattle-pounds, and market-dues. The chief objects of expenditure in recent years have been the schools, the roads and drains, markets and slaughter-houses, and conservancy. A good dispensary is maintained which is now being extended at the cost of a merchant who has manganese mines in the vicinity. The committee has lately introduced street-lighting and is considering plans for the extension and improvement of its market. A light railway between Kamptee and Ramtek is on the eve of completion and in the near neighbourhood a very large irrigation lake is being constructed. The town has important manganese mines near it and is likely in a
few years to become a busy centre of commerce. At present its chief local industry is the cultivation of the pan leaf.
248. The town of Khapa lies at the western end of
Ramtek tahsil but is only 5 miles from Saoner and will soon be included in the new Saoner tahsil. In 1901 its population was 7615. The municipal committee consists at present of 9 members, all of whom are nominated by Government. For the decade ending with 1901 the town's average income was only Rs. 6500, but this has now increased to Rs. 11,600, half of which is derived from an octroi tax. The other sources of revenue are cattle registration fees, cattle-pound
fines, and market-dues, and the incidence of actual taxation is only 14 annas per head of population. The chief objects of expenditure are conservancy, education, reads and drainage. Street lamps have recently been introduced and a slaughter-house is being built. It is also proposed to build a solid masonry approach from the town to the Kanhan river. Most of the inhabitants are hand-loom, weavers.
249. Saoner town lies at present within Nagpur tahsil,
but it is soon to be the headquarters of a new tahsil. Its population in 1901
was only 5821, but it is a prosperous centre of the cotton industry and is
rapidly extending. The municipal committee consists of 3 nominated and 10
elected members. For the decade ending with 1901 its income was only Rs. 2800,
but by 1906-07 this had risen to Rs. 10,400, derived from a house-tax, bazar
dues, and cotton-market dues. The incidence of taxation on the townspeople is
only 11 annas per head. The chief object of expenditure has hitherto been the
cotton-market, on which the prosperity of the town mainly depends, and improvement in the conservancy and additions to the school buildings are now contemplated. It is probable that within a few years Saoner will become an important railway centre as well as the headquarters of a tahsil.
250. Mowar is a town of 4799 inhabitants in the extreme
west of the District. Its committee consists of 3 nominated and 10 elected
members. Its average annual income for the decade ending with 1901 was only Rs. 3600, but by 1906-07 this had increased to Rs. 6600, although the incidence of taxation then amounted to 12 annas per head. The town lives chiefly on its large market and on the improvement of this and the construction of a large sarai, or native rest-house, considerable sums are now being expended. In the past the chief municipal undertaking was the construction of a large
earthen dam to prevent the flood-water of the Koilar river from sweeping through the town.
251. Kalmeshwar is a small town of 5340. inhabitants lying 12 miles to the west
of Nagpur city. Its committee consisted
of 7 members, two of whom were nominated, but it is
now being reorganised. The average annual revenue of
the town for the decade ending with 1901 was only
Rs. 4400 but by 1906-07 it rose to Rs. 7000, derived
chiefly from a house tax, bazar dues, a conservancy
cess, cattle-registration fees, and cattle-pound fines. The
incidence of taxation is less than 9 annas per head. Most
of the municipal revenue is spent on the schools, but the
conservancy arrangements have recently been improved, and
private subscriptions have been received for the foundation
of a dispensary.
252. Katol, as has been noted, is not yet a municipality,
but for three years it has been administered by a town-fund committee. Its population was 7313 in 1901, and is steadily increasing. Its first annual income in 1905-06 was Rs. 4761 but this has now increased to Rs. 7176, derived chiefly from a house tax, a latrine-cess, and fees from its weekly bazar and its cotton-market. Hitherto most of the fund has been spent on the construction of an excellent cotton-market, but efforts are now being made to improve the conservancy, the lighting, and the roads. A town hall has already been built from private subscriptions. The town is an important centre of the cotton trade and is making very rapid progress.
253. The total net municipal income of the District,
excluding that of the cantonment town
of Kamptee, is now about 5 lakhs
of rupees, of which about 3½ lakhs
accrue from taxation of the townspeople. The town population was in 1901, 183,297 or 24 per cent. of the population
of the District. It has, in spite of severe epidemics of
plague, increased considerably since 1901, but even if the
figure of that year be accepted the incidence of municipal
taxation is less than Rs. 2 per head of population.
254. There are in the District many very large villages
which become more and more insanitary as they develop in size.
Three of these in the Katol tahsil, Mohpa, Narkher, and Kelod, have been brought under the operation of Village Sanitation Act, the first in 1905 and the others in 1906. They draw revenues from a house tax from cattle registration fees, from market-dues, and from brokers' license fees. In 1906-07 the income of Mohpa was Rs. 1955 and of Kelod and Narkher Rs. 1785 and Rs. 2328 respectively. This income is spent chiefly on conservancy, and on the improvement of the wells and roads. In Narkher especially the income is being steadily increased to meet necessary expenditure. In seven large villages the Mukaddam Rules of the Land Revenue Act have been for some years in force. These are
Bori, Patansaongi, Bela, Bhiwapur, Kuhi, Kondhali and Sawargaon. Operations were begun in Bhiwapur, Kuhi and Sawargaon in 1888 and at Kondhali in 1902. The sum raised annually varies from Rs. 260 to Rs. 650 but in most cases the assessments have recently been increased. During 1906-07 the Mukaddam Rules have been applied to 15 other villages-Nand, Talegaon-Kamptee, Khairgaon, Jalalkhera, Ridhora, Belona, Paradsinga, Makardhokra, Mandhal, Warora, Veltur, Kodamendhi, Parseoni, Maunda, and Takalghat The first assessments are all very small, and provide funds only for the pay of a small conservancy staff, but the operations appear to be popular in prosperous villages and the local revenues can conveniently be increased from year to year to meet the expense of new wells. Hitherto it has been usual for the District Council and the tahsil
officials to levy special subscriptions for the improvement of water-supply, but the exaction of comparatively
large contributions from a few individuals is often difficult
and the procedure can be regularised.
225. Nagpur, as headquarters District of the Provinces,
possesses a large number of Government buildings. But owing to the
poverty of the Province in the past few of these are of any architectural importance. The following is a short list of
the principal ones:-
Date of construction.
Old Secretariat office
Victoria Technical Institute
Of these the Hospital and the Museum have most architectural pretensions, but Government House is a commodious building on a magnificent site, and the Victoria Institute, though built of red brick, is an imposing edifice. The development and extension of the Province has necessitated considerable outlay on new buildings. Of these the finest is the new Secretariat building, now nearing completion, which is to cost eight lakhs of rupees. Its ground-plan is a quadrangle enclosing a spacious open courtyard. The building is double-storeyed and the entire facade is of massive stone masonry in alternating courses of black basalt and grey sandstone. The exterior is enriched by a projecting cornice and carved work in grey sandstone, and a very effective screen of pierced and carved stone-work forms a filling between the main piers and shades the window's from the direct rays of the sun. The new Law Courts are of similar design and construction but are single-storeyed. Several other offices are being built and in the
city a new central police Station-house, costing Rs. 41,200, is nearing
completion. In the Civil Station a large area of laid has been taken up by
Government which has been land out with roads, public gardens, and bungalow
sites. Numerous new houses have been or are being built on this area, which also
contains the new Central Provinces Club building on an excellent site above the
race-course. The District is very poorly provided with roads. The Nagpur-Jubbulpore road alone can be described as complete. This was constructed before the days when railway construction appeared to justify cessation of road-building. It contains at Kamptee over the Kanhan river one of the finest masonry bridges in India. It was built in 1870-74 at a cost of 12½ lakhs of rupees. The road is bridged throughout but in recent years its width and depth of metal for 20 miles from Kamptee north-wards has not been sufficient to stand the wear and tear of its heavy traffic in manganese ore and timber. This will now, however, be relieved by the Kamptee-Ramtek railway. There are four other fairly good roads radiating from Nagpur. One is the Great Eastern Road to Bhandara, another the Nagpur-Chanda road through Umrer, another the Nagpur-Katol road, and the fourth is the Nagpur-Saoner road which branches at Saoner into two lines running to Chhindwara and Betul. The two last are each year badly cut up by their heavy traffic. All four are only partially bridged and only partially provided with causeways and culverts. Improvements are now in progress, but new roads are needed in every part of the District, especially in the south and west. Of the new routes projected the most important is the direct highway from Nagpur to Amraoti via Kondhali. The Irrigation Department has for some years been at work on schemes for the District. The most important of these is the project for damming the Stir river near Ramtek in order to provide a very large irrigation lake. This work is now being rapidly pushed forward and when complete will add greatly to the resources of the District. The projected
new municipal reservoir for Nagpur city will be another fine lake.
256. The strength of the police force in the District is 942
officers and men, and there are also
53 officers and men belonging to the
railway police. The details of the District force are: 1
District Superintendent, 1 Assistant Superintendent, 1 Deputy
Superintendent, 4 Inspectors, 15 Sub-Inspectors, 3 Sergeants,
129 Head Constables, 766 Constables, 2 Daffadars, 20 Sowars.
The following towns are specially provided with separate
forces:-Nagpur and Sitabaldi 153, Kamptee 83, Umrer 34,
Ramtek 27. The annual cost of the force is Rs. 1,53,000. The
remuneration of the men has lately been increased but as rates
have risen greatly in all other employments it is still very
difficult to procure local recruits, and most of the members of
the force are men from Upper India. The city and Civil
Station at present are divided, for purposes of watch and
ward, into 30 circles, and the men are scattered among a large
number of large and small posts. But steps are being taken
to concentrate most of the force in three convenient centres.
the whole District is divided among 11 Station-houses and 32 outposts within
Station-house circles. This arrangement also is now being revised and there will soon be 22
Station-houses, and few or no outposts.
257. At the time of the 30 years' settlement the owners of
villages were made responsible for
the local watch and ward, and the
kotwars or Watchmen were left in an undefined position as
their servants. They were remunerated partly by the cultivation of service-land held from the malguzar, and partly by
due's of grain paid by the villagers. They received also the
hides of cattle, dying within the village. The post was
usually regarded as an hereditary one and on the death of an
incumbent both duties and perquisites were subdivided
among his descendants. This arrangement was not without
its advantage, for there was always some kotwar available for duty in the
absence of others. Its disadvantage was that subdivision led to slackness of
discipline and in case of default it was practically impossible to fix
responsibility. Accordingly at last settlement the system was revised. One kotwar only was selected for each village, or in the larger places, for each block of 50 houses, and the remuneration was restricted to him. The result of the change was a reduction of the number of kotwars from 5398 to 2142. The payments in kind were commuted into cash payments, the value of land held from the malguzar being deducted from his contribution. The following figures show approximately how the remuneration is now made up:-
From tenants Cash.
From sales of hides.
The average amount received by each man is less than Rs. 39 per annum. This is but small pay and the work becomes heavier each year as District administration becomes more thorough, so it is not surprising that the kotwars,
most of whom are Mahars, are as a rule discontented and do not usually render
good service. In the neighbour-hood of the towns many of them supplement their
small incomes (which are about half the earnings of a female factory-hand) by
acting as brokers in the cattle-markets or by driving a retail trade in fruit.
The impending re-settlement if the District will probably occasion a further revision of the system.
258. Nagpur has a Central jail of the first class under the charge of a Superintendent, who is an officer of the Indian Medical Service. It has accommodation for 1389 prisoners, including wards for
111 females and 30 Europeans. The daily average number of prisoners for the past ten years has
been:-1897, 1268; 1898, 1086; 1899,807;1900, 1032; 1901, 1097;
1902, 949; 1903, 671; 1904, 709:1905, 649; 1906,
636. The number has gone down year by year, and the chief reason for the
satisfactory decrease is the prosperity of the District. Of late years crops
have been satisfactory and there has been a very steady demand for labour for
the cotton factories, the manganese mines, and for the construction of railways, roads, building's, and irrigation tanks. During the past ten years there have been 499 literate convicts, of whom 188 have been Government servants. The cost per head of dieting the prisoners was in 1897 Rs. 41-6-1 and in 1901 Rs. 45-3-0, but after that year a considerable reduction was effected and in 1906 it was only Rs. 23-2-6. In the last year the total cost of maintaining each prisoner was Rs. 94, but the average wage value of the work done by those who were at work was Rs. 140. The
main industry of the jail is the printing of Government forms. There are 30 presses at work. The other profitable industries are carpet-weaving and upholstering in cane and bamboo. A comparatively small amount of stone-breaking and aloe-pounding is done also, chiefly as a punitive form of work. There is an excellent garden and the sanitary condition of the jail is remarkable. It is one of the most sanitary and industrious parts of Nagpur city.
259, The following statistics show the progress of education for the last three years:-
1905, 193 schools, 13,788 scholars; 1906, 189 schools, 14,027 scholars; 1907, 193 schools, 14,236 scholars. The headquarters of the District, being also the headquarters of the Province, contains several of the leading educational institutions, viz., 2 aided colleges, containing 168 pupils; a law class with 23 pupils; the Victoria Technical Institute (which houses the Agricultural college and advanced science classes), a Normal school, with 80 students and others. The District contains a Government High school at Kamptee with 50 and 135 boys in the High and middle
departments respectively; 3 aided high schools in Nagpur with 412 High school pupils, and a small unaided Bengali High school. Of the aided High schools, one is attached to the His-lop college under the management of the United Free Church Mission; while the Neill city High school and Patwardhan High school are managed by committees. There are in the District4 English middle schools under municipalities, at Ramtek, Umrer, Saoner, and Kalmeshwar, and one at Katol under the District Council; these total 332 scholars. And there are also 10 aided English middle schools, under either missions or other bodies, one important one being the Anjuman school in Nagpur. These contain 841 scholars; There are 15 vernacular middle schools, 6 of which have training classes; but others also prepare a few candidates for the Teachers' Certificate Examination. Primary education is represented by 131 schools containing 8967 scholars, which gives an average of 68 per school. The majority of these are in villages, but there is a certain number of small private schools in the city, mostly aided by small grants. These are under departmental inspection, but on the whole are not as efficient as the rural schools, which are under the management of the District Council. Under the head of female education there are 16 girls' schools with 867 scholars. There are also an English middle and a vernacular middle school for girls, supported by the Free Church Mission, and containing 30 and 124 girls respectively. Out of the total of 14,236 scholars, the numbers under various stages of instruction in 1906-07 were as follows:-200 were in receipt of collegiate education, 4043 of secondary, 9834 of primary education and 59 were in special schools. The percentage of children under instruction to those of school going age was 46.6 in the case of boys, and 36 of girls. The former Is a high figure and is partly due to the extent of education in Nagpur city, where there are 45 different educational institutions. In the census of 1901 the percentage of males returned as literate was 9.15, and of
females 65; the former being a high figure as compared with other Districts. The percentage of Hindus was 8.15; that of Musalmans being, as it usually is, much higher,
viz., 18.66. Expenditure on education increased from Rs. 1.99 lakhs in 1904-05 to Rs. 2.52 lakhs in 1906-07. Of the latter sum Rs. 1.07 lakhs were contributed by Provincial revenues, Rs. 43,000 by the District Council. Rs. 16,000 by municipalities, Rs. 35,000 from fees, and Rs. 52,000 from private sources. The above account does not include European education. This comprises 4 schools, -the Bishop's High school (English mixed), St. Francis de Sales school for boys (Roman Catholic Mission), and Girls' Convent schools in Nagpur and Kamptee. All these are High schools. They contain 52 children in the High school stage, 177 in the middle, and 375 in the primary; or a total of 604. There is an industrial class attached to the Roman Catholic boys school. The total expenditure amounts to Rs. 76,000. The pupils are prepared for European primary, middle and high certificates and the Allahabad University Entrance Examination. A few pupils in St. Francis school read up to the First Arts. The District is under the Inspector of Schools, Nagpur Circle, and has two Deputy Inspectors, whose ranges are called the Nagpur and Ramtek ranges respectively. Girls' schools and European schools are under their special Inspectress and Inspector.
260. There are in all 20 hospitals and dispensaries in the
District. Twelve of these are at
headquarters and include the Mayo
and Dufferin Hospitals, the Mure Memorial Mission Hospital,
two railway and two Mill dispensaries. The Mayo hospital
is a well-equipped institution with 84 beds. It has private
wards and accommodation for Europeans and has recently
been improved at a cost of Rs. 22,000, spent chiefly on its
excellent operating room. The Dufferin Hospital for women
is under a Lady Doctor and contains 35 beds. The Mure Memorial Hospital, which is maintained by the United Free
Church of Scotland Mission, is also under a Lady Doctor. It contains 30 beds. There are 12 public dispensaries in the District. Five of these are in the city and there is one at each of the following towns:-Umrer, Ramtek, Khapa, Katol, Mowar, Kuhi
and Saoner. At Saoner there is a second dispensary managed by the Scotch Free
Church Mission. At Saoner and at Kuhi special buildings have not yet been constructed but funds have been collected for the
purpose. Private subscriptions have recently been collected also for the establishment of two more public dispensaries at Kalmeshwar and Parseoni. At present only two of the outlying dispensaries have wards for in-patients, namely, Umrer with 11. beds and Katol with 8, but at Khapa a small ward is being added, and at Ramtek a wealthy
contractor has promised to provide two large wards. In the year 1906, 1297 indoor and 259,212 outdoor patients
were treated at the twelve public dispensaries of the District, and the average daily attendance was of in-patients 66 and of out-patients 1588. Nine of the dispensaries have midwives attached to them. The income of these twelve institutions in 1906 was Rs. 55,377, derived from Provincial revenues, from local funds, and from private subscriptions. At Nagpur there is one of the two Provincial lunatic asylums, a large
institution with excellent grounds, in which at present there are 150, inmates. It is being enlarged and will soon accommodate 278. Vaccination is compulsory only in the Nagpur and Umrer municipalities, but it is carried on with fair success throughout the District, the staff employed consisting of a Superintendent and 17 vaccinators. Its annual cost is only Rs. 3460. The number of successful primary vaccinations was in 1890-91, 22,561 or only 32 per mille of the population. In 1900-01 it was 25,310, or 33 per mille, and in 1905-06 it was 27,149 or 42 per mille.