INTRODUCTION
 
 

ONE OF THE MAIN FACETS OF ECONOMIC LIFE of a country or part thereof is its industrial economy. The term balanced economy is often used in the context of underdeveloped economies implying a balance between the two important sectors of national economy, viz., agriculture and industry. In a predominantly agricultural country like India, the agricultural sector is necessarily looked upon as a; feeder to the industrial sector. However, in the ultimate analysis, both these sectors are viewed as complementary parts of the national economy. Therefore, a co-ordinated plan for agricultural and industrial development has to be chalked out so as to ensure a self-generating and self-sustaining economy. This objective of planning is clearly embodied in India's Five-Year Plans for economic development.

Industrial progress cannot be achieved easily as it is preconditioned by several factors; the important ones being availability of capital, industrial enterprise, labour, raw materials, speedy and efficient means of transportation and good markets. The study of the industrial growth of Nagpur shows that the district is endowed with many of the prerequisites for a sustained growth of industries. Nagpur occupies a central position on the country's map and is advantageously situated on the Bombay-Calcutta and the Delhi Madras rail routes. Nagpur city, the district headquarters, is also air-linked with the major industrial and trade centres such as Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and Madras. Nagpur district is blessed with excellent rail and road transport facilities. At the beginning of 1960 railways served 9.3322 km.(5.8 miles) per 258.99 km.2 (100 sq. miles) in the district against 3.2187 km. (2.0 miles) for the country as a whole. The National and State Highways accounted for 399.117 kill. (248 miles) in the district. The average road mileage per 258.99 km.2 (100 sq. miles) in the district comes to 17.864 kill. (11.l) as against 14.323 km. (8.9) for Vidarbha region and 29.451 kill. (18.3) for the erstwhile Bombay State as a whole. Persons engaged in trade and commerce employed their capital in traditional activities such as bidi-making and manganese mining. They also desired to invest their capital in new profitable ventures. Besides, the district is well-served by 56 post and telegraph offices. 30 banking offices (of which 26 are in Nagpur city and water-supply potential. The district abounds in timber, large deposits of manganese ore (second grade and high grade) and coal. Agriculture in the district provides important commercial crops such as cotton, orange and linseed which occupy 18.3 per cent of the net area sown. In brief, it will be seen that Nagpur district possesses considerable potential for industrial growth. (For details refer to Chapter 9 ‘ Economic Trends’.) With a view to giving a fillip to the industrial growth of Nagpur district and Vidarbha region as a whole, the Government of Maharashtra has adopted several measures, the most important among them being the establishment of an industrial estate at Nagpur. While aiming at industrial growth of the district, care has to be taken to avoid excessive concentration and lop-sided development of industries, Kamptee and Kanhan near Nagpur will serve as satellite industrial townships.

Till the beginning of this century, agriculture continued to be the mainstay of the district economy. In the industrial field, most important industry of the district was weaving, especially weaving of silk-bordered cloth. This industry experienced a period of depression before 1872 as a result of competition from machine-made goods. However, the position improved after 1901 when about 40,823 kg. (90,000 lbs.) of raw silk, then valued at five to six 1akhs of rupees, was imported into the district. Establishment of the Empress Mills on 1st January 1877 laid the foundation of the textile industry in the district.

Two factories engaged in the production of chemicals cater to the demand of textile and other industries in the district. Kamptee is an industrially flourishing centre where a variety of industrial units are located. Cement pipes, rubber products and paints and varnishes are manufactured in the district on a considerable scale. Nagpur represents a nucleus of printing presses including Government Central Press, and as the district is rich in orange cultivation, a few cold storage companies are doing good business.

Industrialisation of Nagpur is in progress particularly since Independence. In 1958, there were 326 factories employing 30,041 workers. Of these, nine were big factories employing 15,698 workers. The following tables give the number of persons employed in different industries in 1911, 1921, 1931, 1951 and 1961. ( † Census Reports, 1911,1921, 1931, 1951 and 1961.)

 
 

An attempt is made in this chapter to present the industrial picture of the district. The chapter is divided into three sections. The first deals with mechanised industries,1 large and small, registered under the Factories Act. Cottage and Village industries are described in the second section. The third section gives an account of the trade union movement and labour organization in the district.

Before the enactment of the Factories Act, 1948, factories employing 20 or more workers and carrying on manufacture with the aid of power were registered under section 2 (i),while factories declared as such by the Provincial Government and employing 10 or more workers and carrying on manufacture with or without the aid of power were registered under section 5 (i) and (ii), of the Factories Act of 1934.

Under the new Act of 1948, factories employing 10 workers and carrying on manufacture with the aid of power are registered under section 2 (m) (i), and all factories employing 20 or more workers without the aid of power under section 2 (m) (iii). Wherever possible detailed statistics are given of factories registered under section 2 (i) of the Act of 1934 and section 2 (m) (i) of 1948.
(I) Sugar Industries.-Gur manufacture; other manufactures 1md refining of raw sugar, syrup and granulated or clarified sugar from sugarcane or from sugar beets.

(2) Tobacco.-Manufacture of bidis; manufacture of tobacco products (other than bid is) such as cigarettes, cigars, cheroots and snuff. Steaming, re-drying and other operations connected with preparing leaf tobacco for manufacturing are also included.

(3) Wearing apparel (except footwear and made-up textile goods). Tailors, milliners, dress-makers and darners; manufacturers of hosiery, embroiderers, makers of crepe, lace and fringes; fur dressers and dyers; hat-makers and makers of other articles of wear from textiles; manufacture of textiles for house-furnishing; tent-makers; makers of other made-up textile goods, including umbrellas.

(4) Textile industries otherwise unclassified.-Jute pressing, baling, spinning and weaving; hemp and flax; spinning and weaving; manufacture of rayon; manufacture of rope, twine, string and other related goods from cocoanut, aloes, straw, linseed and hair; all other (including insufficiently described) textile industries, including artificial leather and cloth.

(5) Manufacture of metal products otherwise unclassified.-Blacksmiths and other workers in iron and makers of implements; workers in copper, brass and bell metal; workers in other metals; cutters and surgical and veterinary instrument makers; workers in mints, die sinkers, etc.; makers of arms, guns, etc., including workers in ordnance factories.

(6) Manufacturing industries otherwise unclassified.-Manufacture of professional, scientific and controlling instruments (but not including cutlery, surgical or veterinary instruments); photographic and optical goods; repair and manufacture of watches and clocks; workers in precious stones, precious metals and makers of jewellery and ornaments; manufacture of musical instruments and appliances; stationery articles other than paper and paper products; makers of plastic and celluloid articles other than rayon; sports-goods makers; toy-makers; other miscellaneous manufacturing industries, including bone, ivory, horn, shell, etc.

(7) Non-metallic mineral products.-Potters and makers of earthen ware; makers of porcelain and crockery; glass bangles, glass beads, glass-necklaces, etc.; makers of other glass and crystal ware; makers of other miscellaneous non-metallic mineral products.

 

TABLE No. 1
STATEMENT SHOWING THE NUMBER OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN DIFFERENT INDUSTRIES IN NAGPUR DISTRICT.

Name of Industry

(1)

1911

(2)

1921

(3)

1931

(4)

1.
Fishing, pearling and hunting
5,125
5,091
4,173
2.
Exploitation of minerals
6,769
4,381
4,937
3.
Textiles : Total
43,233
39,519
43,390
(i)
Cotton ginning, cleaning, pressing :
3,712
10,689
1,380
(ii)
Cotton spinning, sizing, weaving :
33,617
27,873
37,859
(iii)
Jute pressing, spinning and weaving :
42
5
62
(iv)
Rope, twine, string and other fibres :
277
88
74
(v)
Wool carding, spinning, weaving :
429
172
238
(vi)
Silk spinning and weaving :
4,009
15
3,075
(vii)
Dyeing, bleaching, printing preparation and sponging of textiles.
1,107
676
586
(viii)
Lace, crepe, embroideries, etc.
40
1
116
4.
Hides, skins and hard material from the animal kingdom.
179
80
1,545
5.
Wood : Total
6,676
11,905
8,772
(i)
Sawyers and carpenters, turners, joiners, etc
4535
10,067
5,506
(ii)
Basket makers and other industries of woody material including leaves.
2,141
1,838
3,266
6.
Metals
3,465
2,544
3,006
7.
Ceramics : Total
3,419
2,627
3,347
(i)
Potlers and makers of earthenwares
1,987
2,215
1,219
(ii)
Brick and tile makers
1,430
411
1,996
(iii)
Brick and tile makers (iii) Other workers in ceramics
2
1
132
8.
Chemical production, etc.
411
305
778
9.
Food industries
3,865
1,679
3,727
10.
Industries of dress and toilet
12,315
11,013
10,852
11.
Furniture industries
20
2
109
12.
Building industries
8,414
1,089
3,890
13.
Construction of means of transport
23
17
175
14.
Miscellaneous and undefined industries
5,048
4,431
5,574


 

TABLE No.2
NUMBER OF ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE (i.e., SELF-SUPPORTING) PERSONS ENGAGED IN INDUSTRIES IN 1951,*
DISTRICT NAGPUR.

Classification of Industries

(1)

Total
Employers
Employees
Independent Worker
Males
(2)
Females
(3)
Males
(4)
Females
(5)
Males
(6)
Females
(7)
Males
(8)
Females
(9)
All Industries and Services
1,76,589
19,202
5,642
291
94,958
11,208
75,989
770
Primary Industries not elsewhere specified
8,279
288
129
6
3,007
76
5,143
206
Stock-raising
2,859
105
32
5
2,059
46
768
54
Rearing of small animals and insects
92
-
2
-
53
-
37
-
Plantation industries
429
9
26
1
313
7
90
1
Forestry and collection of products not elsewhere specified
1,252
67
64
-
564
17
624
50
Hunting (including trapping and game propagation)
108
9
-
-
1
4
107
5
Fishing
3,539
98
5
-
17
2
3,517
96
Mining and Quarrying
5,244
1,437
24
1
3,308
1,288
912
148
Coal-mining
54
276
-
-
22
139
32
137
Crude petroleum and natural gas
1
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
Stone-quarryipg, clay and sand pits
51
103
-
-
50
96
1
7
Processing and Manufacture-Foodstuffs-                
Textile leather and products thereof
45 365
5,395
820
37
19.581
3,467
24,964
1,891
Food industries otherwise unclassified
561
83
53
3
181
36
282
44
Grains and pulses
535
80
70
8
177
28
288
44
Sugar industries
27
2
8
-
9
-
10
2
Beverages
180
12
40
-
98
5
42
7
Tobbacco
3,561
2,057
33
2
3,064
1,750
464
305
Cotton textiles
33,275
2,678
290
4
14,576
1,563
18,409
1,111
Wearing apparel (except footwear) and made-up textile goods.
3,800
199
240
8
630
27
2,930
164
Textile industries otherwise unclassified
328
49
1
4
25
27
70
18
Leather products and footwear
1,957
147
26
2
85
15
146
130
Processing and Manufacture-Chemicals and Products thereof
7,241
167
254
9
3,592
124
3,395
34
Manufacture of metal products otherwise unclassified.
3,269
31
70
5
472
8
2,727

18

Non-ferrous metals (Basic Manufacture)
13
-
2
-
-
-
11
-
Transport equipment
1,437
31
64
4
1,113
25
260

2

Electrical machinery, apparatus, appliances and supplies
113
-
-
-
112
-
1
-
Machinery (other than electrical machinery) including engineering workshops.
1,847
62
73
-
1,502
55
272
7
Basic industrial chemical
73
17
3
-
51
16
19
1
Manufacture of chemical products otherwise unclassified
430
18
37
-
311
14
82
4
Processing and manufacturing not elsewhere specified
15,739
607
395
14
5,428
166
9,916
427
Manufacturing industries otherwise unclassified
1,903
28
63
2
168
2
1,672
24
Products of petroleum and coal
5
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
Bricks, tiles and other structural clay products
934
64
16
1
370
33
548
30
Non-metallic mineral products
1,776
136
47
3
870
63
859
6
Rubber products
111
6
4
-
100
6
7
-
Wood and wood products other than furniture and fix­tures.
8,081
341
131
4
1,704
31
6,246
306
Furniture and fixtures.
537
1
41
-
331
1
185
-
Paper and paper products
22
3
-
1
17
1
5
1
Printing and allied industries
2,313
27
93
3
1,806
24
414
-
Construction and Utilities
8,486
1,402
139
4
6,452
1,141
1,895
257
Construction and maintenance of works otherwise unclassified.
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
Construction and maintenance-buildings
4,248
848
121
2
2,480
620
1,647
226
Construction and maintenance-roads, bridges and other transport works.
490
40
-
2
485
34
5
4
Works and services-electric and gas supply
3,075
45
18
-
2,883
29
224
16
Works and services-domestic and industrial water-supply.
86
28
-
-
67
22
19
6
Sanitary Works and services including scavengers
554
441
-
-
554
436
-
5
Metal mining except iron-ore mining
5,138
1,057
24
1
4,236
1,053
878
3
Vegetable oil and dairy products
1,186
88
59
6
504
16
623
66
Iron and steel
34
6
2
-
21
6
11
-
Cement, cement pipes, other cement products
57
1
-
-
57
1
-
-

* Nagpur District Census Handbook (1951).

 
TABLE No. 3.

Industrial Classification by Sex and Divisions, Major Groups of Persons at work Other than Cultivation in1961 in Nagpur District

Bank of Industry

(1)

Total Workers
Workers at household Industry
Workers in non household Industry, etc.
Total
(2)
Males
(3)
Females
(4)
Males
(5)
Females
(6)
Males
( 7)
Female
(8)
  Division 0              
1. Field Produce and Plantation Crops
815
726
89
5
4
721
85
2. Plantation Crops
4
3
1
-
-
3
1
3. Forestry and Logging
1,057
939
118
5
-
934
138
4. Fishing
2,781
2,627
154
42
4
2,585
150
5. Live-stock and Hunting
12,121
31,340
781
1,348
130
9,992
651
  Division 1
6. Mining and Quarrying
10,546
6,695
3,851
-
-
6,695
3,851
  Division 2 and 3
7. Foodstuffs
4,258
3,481
777
1,180
473
2,301
304
8. Beverages
672
653
19
28
1
625
18
9. Tobacco Products
10,322
4,430
5,892
1,369
1,666
3,061
4,226
10. Textile—Cotton
65,736
42,673
23,063
25,427
21,252
17,246
1,811
11. Textile—Jute
73
40
33
37
32
3
1
12. Textile—Wool
553
264
289
261
287
3
2
13. Textile Silk
32
23
9
5
-
18
9
14. Textile—Miscellaneous
8,061
7,161
900
3,643
686
1 3,515
l 214
15. Manufacture of Wood and Wooden products
13,532
11,532
2,000
5,311
1,840
6,221
160
16. Paper and Paper Products
144
110
34
38
11
72
23
17. Printing and Publishing
3,662
3,610
52
54
7
2,556
45
18. Leather and Leather Products
3,060
2,513
547
1,728
506
785
41
19. Rubber, Petroleum and Coal Products
339
326
13
10
1
316
12
20. Chemicals and Chemical Products
1,284
1,124
160
139
50
985
310
21. Non-Metallic products other than Petroleum and Coal
6,413
3,918
2,495
1,337
1,070
2,581
1,425
22. Basic Metals, and their products except machinery and Transport equipment.
4,512
4,192
320
2,306
293
1,886
27
23. Machinery (all kinds other than Transport) and Electrical equipment.
847
841
6
27
2
834
4
24. Transport equipment
7,060
7,001
59
228
228
6,773
57
25. Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries
3,603
3,491
112
1,418
61
2,073
51
  Division 4
26. Construction
13,656
10,485
3,171
-
-
10,485
3,17 1
  Division 5
27. Electricity and Gas
2,514
2,432
82
-
-
2,432
82
28. Water-supply and Sanitary Services
3,672
2,409
1,263
-
-
2,409
1,263
  Division 6
29. Wholesale Trade
2,613
2,576
37
-
-
2,576
37
30. Retail Trade
38,084
32,725
5,359
-
-
32,725
5,359
31. Trade and Commerce—Miscellaneous
2,886
2,791
95
-
-
2,791
95
  Division 7
32. Transport
28,362
24,944
3,418
-
-
24,944
3,418
33. Storage and Warehousing
161
151
10
-
-
151
10
34. Communications
5,028
4,801
227
-
-
4,801
227
  Division 8
35. Public Services
18,668
17,874
794
-
-
17,874
794
36. Educational and Scientific Services
11,578
8,847
2,731
-
-
8,847
2,731
37. Medical and Health Services
4,069
2,647
1,422
-
-
2,647
1,422
38. Religious and Welfare Services
1,949
1,782
167
-
-
1,782
167
39. Legal Services
565
561
4
-
-
561
4
40. Business Services
559
551
8
-
-
551
8
41. Community Services and Trade and Labour Associations
1,141
1,022
119
-
-
1,022
119
42. Recreation Services
2,254
2,145
109
-
-
2,145
109
43. Personal Services
18,756
13,692
5,064
-
-
13,692
5,064
44. Services (not elsewhere classified)
7,191
4,575
2,616
-
-
4,575
2,616
  Division 9
45. Activities unspecified and adequately described (this includes new entrants to the labour market).
7
5
2
-
-
5
2

*This table has been prepared as per 1961 Census Statistics.

LARGE AND SMALL INDUSTRIES
Electricity Generation

Electricity in the district was first supplied to the public as early as in 1905. In that year a licence for generation and distribution was granted to Nagpur Electric Light and Power Co., Ltd. Subsequent developments were, however, very slow. Private undertakings took up the work of supplying electricity at important places. But the very nature of such enterprises put restriction on any large scale expansion of the supply system and consequently, no headway was made in the field of rural electrification. Prior to the formation of the Government Electricity Department, in the erstwhile Madhya Pradesh State, the benefits of supply of electricity were confined to a few major towns. The private companies established small power stations at different places and the process of power generation was, therefore, quite uneconomical. A number of cotton mills, ginning factories, oil mills and rice mills at different places were mostly run on oil or steam engines. The Electricity Department was, therefore, formed by the end of 1945 to regulate and rationalise the supply of electricity to the various parts. This Department formed the corporate body known as the Electricity Board in 1952.

The first step taken by the Electricity Department towards rationalising the supply was to establish a Central Thermal Power Station at Khaperkheda with a sizable network of main transmission lines. This power station with an installed capacity of 30,000 k.w. was commissioned in December, 1950 and is since then supplying the load not only to the eight districts of Vidarbha, but also to three districts of Madhya Pradesh. Grid supply was made available to Nagpur town in February 1951. The first set was commissioned in December 1950 and the second was commissioned in October 1951. The Khaperkheda power station has been linked with Ballarshah power-station. These two together have a total installed capacity of 52,500 k.w. and have reached a peak load of 40,000. k w.

Lift Irrigation Scheme.- It is a joint endeavour undertaken by the Electricity Board and the Agriculture Department of Government.

According to this scheme the Electricity Board supplies the necessary power to the consumer. Government grants the necessary taccavi to the cultivator for digging new wells and repairing old ones and for the purchase of electric motors and pumping sets. The economic feasibility of the scheme is yet to be proved. The scheme is applicable to areas and groups of consumers where its average cost does not exceed Rs. 3,000. The mot system and diesel pump cost Rs. 950 and Rs. 1,350, respectively, whereas electric. pump costs only Rs. 450. As compared to the age-old mot system with bullocks and diesel pumping sets the common cultivator has a cheaper substitute available in this form.

This scheme has given an impetus to the production of cash crops and vegetable gardening. Under this scheme, the villages of Sawargaon-Bela and Kanholi in Nagpur district, are provided with pumping sets.

To meet the rapidly increasing demand for electricity, it was planned to augment the generating capacity as well as the transmission capacity. Accordingly execution of the work on the scheme was undertaken in the First Five-Year Plan period.

Rural Electrification :- In addition to the Khaperkheda power station scheme, the following schemes were also undertaken in the First Five-Year Plan: (1) Saoner-Katol Scheme, (2) Sansar-Warud Scheme, (3) Lift Irrigation Scheme, and (4) The extension of the Southern Grid.

Under these schemes a total length of 233.355 km. (145 miles) of 66 K.V. line, 80.467 km. (50 miles) of 33 K.V. line, 238.183 km. (148 miles) of 11 K.V. line and 397.508 km. (247 miles) L. T. line was constructed. Electrified villages in the northern division and the southern division numbered 63 and 6, respectively. Besides, 780 lift irrigation pumps were energised.

With a view to meeting the prospective increase in the load and to strengthening the grid, a scheme to expand the Khaperkheda Station was included in the Second Five-Year Plan under the programme of development of the Southern Grid. The programme envisaged laying of 65.983 km. (41 miles) of 66 K.V. line from Khaperkeda to Bhandara and construction of necessary out-stations. The work of installation of one 30,000 K.V. Turbo-alternator set at Khaperkheda to double the installed capacity of the station was commenced and it was put into commercial operation in June 1960. It raised the capacity of Khaperkheda Power Station from 30 M.W. to 60 M.W.

During the Second Five-Year Plan period, the following extensions of the grid lines were taken up and completed:-

1. Dhanewada-Raolgaon Extension.
2. Mandi-Budhalal Extension.
3. Ambala Extension.
4. Kochurwadi Extension.
5. Extension to Lonkheri.
6. Dahegaon-Pipla Extension.
7. Extension to Hingna.

Under these schemes. 54.718 km. (34 miles) of 33 K.V. line. 24.462 km. (15.2 miles) of 11 K.V. line and 159.325 km. (99 miles) of L.T. lines have been laid thereby electrifying 19 more villages and energising 564 more pumps for lift irrigation. Patansaongi, Bela, Sawargaon, Nagordhan, Kodamendi and Khairgaon are some of the villages which have reaped the benefits of these schemes.

 

Besides, the following schemes also formed part of the programme included in the remaining period of the Second Five-Year Plan:-

1. Parseoni Extension,
2. Ramtek-Nagordhan Extension,
3. Kalmeshwar-Nagor Link,
4. Khapari-Gumgaon Extension,
5. Saoner-Patansaongi Extension,
6. Govegaon-Wardha Extension,
7. Ambla Extension,
8. Wadone-Bhugaon Extension, and
9. Aroti-Kodamendi Extension.

It was proposed to supply electricity to each village with a population of more than 2,000 persons, in the Third Five-Year Plan. Butibori, Gumgaon, Wakodi and Parseoni were some of the villages included in this programme.

Mines and minerals

Nagpur district is rich in mineral resources. Apart from the important minerals such as coal and manganese, this district possesses abundant supplies of minerals like dolomitic limestone, clays, and wolfram and building stones. The neighbourhood of Nagpur constitutes one of the interesting geological areas of India and the mineral deposits of the area open up immense development possibilities.

"The following economically valuable minerals and mineral substances have been found in Nagpur district:-

(1) Building stone, (2) Coal, (3) Copper ore, (4) Gold, (5) Iron-ore, (6) Lead-ore, (7) Limestone, (8) Manganese-ore, (9) Mica, (10) Ornamental stones and gems. (11) Road metal and (12) Wolfram.

From the quarries at Kamptee and Silwara a very good quality sandstone has long been quarried. It has been used in the construction of buildings and bridges. In the northern pan of the district near Chorbaoli and Baregaon, there is a large variety of crystalline limestones. The Deccan Trap also forms an excellent building material and is quarried for this purpose at the foot of Sitabuldi Hills. Another stone that has been extensively used is the quartzite, often slightly micaceous forming the Ramtek range of hills (Nagpur District Gazetteer, 1908, p. 207.)

There are, in Nagpur, limestones belonging to rocks of two different ages. One of these is the Lameta limestone found at Kelod and Chincholi and the other the crystalline limestone found in some abundance near Koradi, Baregaon and other places in the north-eastern corner of the district.

The district contains over 30 known manganese-ore deposits of which about 20 have yielded ore fit for export purposes. The total production for 1906 was about 148336 metric tonnes (1,46,000 tons) or about an eighth of the world’s total output. The total production from 1900 to 1906 was about 609600 metric tonnes (6,00,000 tons).

Pegmatite, the rock in which mica of commercial value is found, is of common occurrence, traversing the crystalline and metamorphic rocks. These pegmatites have, however, never been exploited for mica and it has yet to be shown that there are many occurrences of pegmatite containing mica scales of any considerable size.

Agates and chalcedony are probably to be found in the trappean portion of the district. These when cut and polished, can be turned into ornamental objects of considerable beauty.

Almost any of the older crystalline rocks of the district may locally be used as road metal; but the favourite materials seem to be the basalts and dolerites of the Deccan Trap series in the portions of the district on or near the Deccan Trap area and quartzites or gneiss and sometimes marble in the Archaean areas.

Wolfram, the valuable and comparatively rare mineral was found by Mr. J. Kelerschon at Agargaon. The following table indicates employment in mines in 1911, 1921, 1931 and 1951:-

 

TITLE No. 4
EMPLOYMENT IN MINES IN NAGPUR DISTRICT.

Year

(1)

Name of work

(2)

Total

(3)

Males

(3)

Females

(6)

1911
Extraction of minerals
6,769
4,073
2,696
1921
Extraction of minerals
4,381
2,300
2,081
1931
Exploitation of minerals
4,830
2,774
2,056
1951
Mining and Quarrying
6,681
5,244
1,437
(i)
Coal mining
330
54
276
(ii)
Metal mining except iron ore mining.
6,195
5,138
1,057
(iii)
Crude petroleum and gas
2
1
1
 
(iv)
Stone-quarrying, Clay and sandpits.
154
51
103

Coal

Coal is by far the most important mineral occurring in Nagpur district and it speaks volumes for the future industrial development of the district. But so far the deposits have been exploited to a very small extent, According to the recent surveys carried out by the State Department of Geology and Mining, the total reserves in the two coal-fields of the district at Kamptee and Umrer were estimated at 370 million metric tonnes.

Kamptee Coal-field.-The field extends in north-westerly direction from Kanhan towards Saoner and covers a very large area. Recent investigations have proved the existence of workable seams here. The possible reserves of Kamptee coal-field are likely to be of the order of (1000 million tons) 1016.05 million metric tonnes. At present there is only one colliery in this field which is situated near Kamptee. Its production for the years from 1956 to 1959 is given below:-

Year
Production of Coal
1956
(19,286 tons.) 19,594.576 metric tons.
1957
(51,877 tons.) 52,707.032 metric tons.
1958

(64,008 tonns.) 65,032.128 metric tons.

1959
(70,558 tonns.) 71,686.928 metric tons.

 

The Khaperkheda Power Station at present draws part of its coal requirements from Kamptee colliery but will eventually meet all its requirements from the Kamptee coal-field after the new collieries are started. The coal-field lies in close proximity of Nagpur and is served by the Nagpur-Chhindwada narrow gauge railway line.

Umrer Coal-field.- Recent prospecting work done by the Department of Geology and Mining of the Government of Maharashtra, has proved the existence of a promising coal-field near Umrer at a distance of about 44 kilometres south-east of Nagpur. Umrer is a railway station on the Nagpur-Nagbhir-Chanda Fort route which is a narrow gauge section of the South-Eastern railway line. It is also connected by a good road. The coal-bearing rocks extend over an area of about four square kilometres. The probable reserves of the field have been estimated to be of the order of 71.12 million metric tons (70 million tons).

Apart from these major coal-fields, the presence of coal has also been discovered at Bokara, 6.437 km. (four miles) north of Nagpur. There is also a possibility of good coal reserve in Bazargaon area about 32.187 km. (20 miles) west of Nagpur.

The coal from the Kamptee and Umrer coal-fields, mined so far is non-coking. A number of coal seams in these fields are of the first grade and second grade quality and could be successfully blended to the extent of 15 to 20 per cent coking coal from these field to produce good coke. First grade coal from these fields can also be used for making pig-iron in low shaft furnaces.

Manganese Ore

Although the manganese ore in the district has been exploited since 1900, its existence has been recorded on several occasions since 1833. However, the most active exploitation was stimulated by the two World Wars. Manganese ore has been exported in large quantities and is one of the most important earners of foreign exchange.

According to 1921 Census, the number of manganese mines in the district was 42. This industry antedated the coal industry. According to 1931 Census, the manganese industry continued to be in a very prosperous condition until 1928. After 1928, the industry received a set-back.

There are as many as 252 mines of manganese ore in the district and the production of mineral in the district for the years from 1956 to 1960 was as under:-

Year
Production of Manganese in tonnes
1956
(1,28,758) 1,30,818.128 metric tons.
1957
(1,57,730) 1,60,253.680 metric tons.
1958
(1,18,193) 1,20,084.88 metric tons.
1959
(93,877) 95,379.032 metric tons.
1960
(88,515) 89,931.240 metric tons

The deposits in Nagpur district are generally associated with the rock termed 'Gondites'. They are considered to be magniferrous sediments of Archaean age which have undergone intense regional metamorphism and subsequent alteration and weathering to give rise to various deposits.

The most important deposits of manganese lie in al belt of about 24.140 km. (15 miles) width stretching from Khapa in Saoner tahsil of Nagpur district and passing through Ramtek into the district of Bhandara. The important centres of manganese mining are Gumgaon, Ramdongri, Kodegaon, Mansar, Kandri, Junewani Satak, Beldongri, Goguldoh, Mandri, Parseoni and Pali.

The following figures indicate the relevant statistics (Nagpur District: Second Five-Year Plan, published by the Directorate of Publicity, Government of Maharashtra.) regarding manganese ore in the district in the year 1956-57:-

1.

Total area covered under ming leases
4345.518 hectares.
(10,738 acres)
2.
No. of mining leases in the district.
178
3.
Total production of ore during the year 1956.
1,30,818.128 metric tons.
(1,28,758 tonnes.)
4.
Value of ore
Rs. 1,51,86,100.

In addition to the above-noted centres, high grade manganese deposits and extensive deposits of low grade manganese ore occur in the forest areas of the district, which are lying between the Kanhan and the Pench rivers, to the north of Khapa and west of Ramtek. These deposits are not under active exploitation at present, as the percentage of manganese is low and that of silica is high.

Most of the mines in the district are worked by open cast methods. Float ore is worked by shallow surface workings and bed ore is mined by deep quarrying. The deeper portions of the reefs are mined by underground methods only at Mansar. Most of the mines are worked by manual labour. Pneumatic jack hammers are used for drilling holes in the ore bed. In boulder working, the excavated material is first screened to remove earth and the material is then jigged by manually operated Joplin jigs to concentrate the ore and remove impurities like quartz and other gangue rock.

In the past; most of the manganese ore was exported in its raw state. Recently a ferro-manganese plant has been set up at Kanhan which consumes part of the production.


 
Iron ore

Iron ore occurs at a place called Dongargaon 3.219 km. (2 miles) north of Bhiwapur. A hematite ore body about 1.829 metres (6 feet) wide can be traced for about 0.4002 km. (2 furlongs) along the strike. The ore analysis reveals 52 per cent to 54 percent of iron content. The deposits have not been exploited up till now.

Limestone and Dolomite

Limestone belonging to older geological formations occurs in Ramtek and Saoner tahsils of Nagpur district at a number of places. Among these deposits, the dolomitic limestone occurring near Kandri, Patgowari and Deolapar are of good quality and have been exploited to a small extent for use as flux in metallurgical industries. The production of lime on a very small scale is seen in the Koradi area of the district.

Clay deposits

Clay suitable for potteries, earthenware, etc., occurs at five places, viz., Shemda, Chorkhairi, Khairi, Kapri and Bazargaon in the district. All of them have medium to good plasticity little shrinkage and give light cream colour on heating. The quarries at Chorkhairi and Shemda are 6.096 metres (20 feet} and 12.192 metres (40 feet) deep, respectively.

Tungsten ore

Wolfram ore or tungsten occurs at Agargaon in the district and was worked sporadically in the past. This area is situated about 48.280 km. (30 miles) to the south-east of Nagpur and is easily accessible. The ore occurs in stringers and veins of quartz traversing mica schists. Since 1907 about 10.160 metric tonnes (10 tons) of ore with about 65 per cent concentrates had been worked intermittently.

Building Materials

Nagpur district is well endowed with various kinds of rocks suitable for building construction, roads, etc. These comprise clays for manufacture of bricks, sands for mortar and concrete limestone and kunkar for lime-making, numerous kinds of building stones such as granite, gneiss, limestones sandstones, quartzites, etc. The sandstone deposits of Bokara near Nagpur have been extensively used in the past and are being used for construction work roundabout Nagpur. The Deccan Trap Rock is being extensively quarried roundabout Nagpur for road construction and building purposes.

 

Besides the above minerals which occur in large quantities there are other minerals such as mica, mineral pigments (ochre), felspar, quartz and antimony. However, they are not found in large quantities so as to be exploited for commercial use.

Cotton Textiles

Amongst the large-scale industrial establishments in Nagpur, textile mills come first. Cotton available in abundance in Nagpur and neighbouring districts of Vidarbha, provides the chief raw material. Weaving was a traditional occupation of the local populace for a long time and with the advent of machinery, these artisans were absorbed in the mills as labourers.

At present there are two mills in the district' and both are located in Nagpur city. One of the mills was established as early as in 1877 with a capital of Rs. 15 lakhs. The mill then had 75,000 spindles and 1.400 looms and employed 4,300 persons. The annual outturn of yarn was about 430907.50 kg. (9 ½ million pounds) while that of cloth was nearly 226795 kg. (5 million pounds) in 1906. The value of the yarn and cloth turned out in 1906 was estimated at Rs. 42.45 lakhs and Rs. 34.91 lakhs, respectively. While a small quantity of cloth was sold locally, the bulk of it was exported to Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. There were several ginning and pressing factories which supplied cotton, while only a fraction of the cotton required was imported from America and Egypt.

Capital and machinery

The fixed capital of the mills stood at Rs. 6,68,72,244 for the year ending 30th June 1962. The value of land and building accounted for Rs.1,64,53,412 and that of plant and machinery amounted to Rs. 4,86,16,847. The machinery consisted of bleaching, dyeing, finishing and printing machines common to all textile mills. One mill also possessed a mercerising, a mineral khaki and a roller engraving machine. The total number of spindles and looms with them was 2,02,828 and 3,097, respectively. They worked in three shifts throughout the year. The working capital of the units stood at Rs. 4,68,41,317 for the same year.

Fuel

The units consumed coal and power as fuel and the value of coal and power utilized for the year ending June 1962, was Rs. 23,93,396 and Rs. 25,17,440, respectively.


Raw Materials

Cotton, which forms the main raw material, is purchased at places like Katol, Umrer, Saoner, Khapa and Kalmeshwar in the district. Besides, cotton is also brought from Yeotmal and Amravati districts, Hinganghat and Arvi in Wardha district. Dyes and chemicals are mainly brought from Bombay, whereas Calcutta is also a source for certain chemicals. The value of raw materials consumed by the two units for the year ending June 1962, was Rs. 4,83,05,434 of which cotton accounted for Rs. 3,84,48,926.

The products of the units included cloth, yarn and linters. The cloth manufactured consisted of different varieties like grey, bleached, dyed and printed. Grey cloth comprised dhotis, sarees both plain and fancy, coatings, drills, twills, shirtings and chaddars. In the cloth of bleached variety twills, drills, long cloths, shirting, towels and handkerchieves were available Printed cloth included chintz, voiles and cotton blankets and coloured shirtings, along with which drills, twills and chaddars were also manufactured. The value of the production which included yarn and linter with cloth during the year, amounted to Rs. 7,09,47,512 of which cloth accounted for Rs. 5,99,46,679.

Both men and women workers were employed as labourers. In addition to wages and salaries, they were also getting the facilities of provident fund, insurance, etc. Wages, salaries and money value of other benefits and privileges, stood at Rs. 2,61,18,344 of which wages and salaries accounted for Rs. 2,43,42,436 for the year ending June 1962. One of the units disbursed Rs. 1,31,58,666 to its workers, of whom 7,759 were males and 535 females for the year ending June 1959.

Handlooms

In a country where planned economic development through rapid industrialisation is being carried out, the problem of preserving traditional skill and of harnessing vast human energy successfully has to be tackled most carefully. It is against this background that handloom-weaving is looked upon as a means of employment and income to millions. Besides, handloom industry possesses other important advantages. For instance it is an industry requiring small amount of capital investment; it calls for little risk and at the same time assures steady and definite employment to a large number of people.

Historical Background

Weaving was one of the most important cottage industries of the district in the beginning of the 20th century. Weaving of silk-bordered cloth had a long and remarkable past. Just before 1872, the industry suffered a period of depression due to competition of machine-made goods but it recovered at the beginning of the 20th century. The majority of the weavers were koshtis. Machine-spun yarn was used for weaving cloth with silk border. Country blankets were woven by dhangars in Bamni, Warur, Dhapewada and Kalmeshwar and its surrounding areas.

Cotton yarn for coloured cloth was dyed by rangaris, but the dyeing of silk was done by patwis (braiders). All dyes were import-ed from Europe and artificial indigo was mixed with a small quantity of the natural product. The silk-bordered sarees woven by the koshtis used to be in great demand particularly during the marriage season. In Nagpur, Muhammedan Momins who were originally immigrants from Mirzapur made cotton-bordered sarees which had a more permanent sale. The Momins also produced handkerchieves and susi, i.e., striped and checked cloth.

Weaving continued to be the main cottage industry till 1931. The textile wing of the Department of Industries which started its work in 1916, introduced from time to time improved sleys amongst the handloom weavers. These sleys brought an increase in the output by about 75 per cent. The result was overproduction which created fresh problems for the industry. For want of proper marketing facilities the entire produce could not be sold. Similarly the weavers were unable to make profitable use of the extra time which the new sleys gave them. The consumers of hand-woven fabrics were taking more and more to mill-made fabrics. The weavers found it difficult to produce latest varieties and patterns so as to keep pace with fashions. Only those weavers who turned out finer and more artistic fibres could hold their own in the industry. The competition of mill-made piece-goods continued to hit the rest hard The condition of the handloom weavers engaged in the manufacture of sarees and dhotis deteriorated. The dyeing and calico printing industry continued to survive but in a moribund condition.

In 1951 there were 43,483 handlooms in Nagpur district. However, according to the handloom registration effected by the Co-operative Department; there were 36,180 handlooms registered in the district in 1959-60. Of these, 18,100 were in the co-operative fold and 18,080 were outside the co-operative fold. Of the looms under co-operative management, only 3,980 were engaged in production and the rest (13,120) amounting to 77 per cent were lying idle. According to1951 Census, there were about 43,483 persons engaged in the handloom industry, of whom 18,898 persons (i.e., 43 per cent) were in the co-operative fold. Out of 159 primary weavers' co-operatives, 120 were functioning.

The following table reveals the important weaving centres and other relevant details of weavers co-operative societies:-

TABLE No. 5
WEAVERS' CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES

Centre

(1)

Hand looms regsitered

No. of societies

(4)

No. of Members

(5)

Chief articles produced

(6)

Within co-operative fold
(2)
Outside co-operative fold
(3)
1. Nagpur
9,941
11,457
75
7,248
Sarees, dhoits and lungis.
2. Kamptee
2,258
1,667
7
2,052
3. Umrer
1,187
912
8
1,380
4. Khapa
567
678
6
692
5. Mauda
155
133
3
174
Sarees.
6. Bhiwapur
302
318
3
3
"
7. Patansaongi
167
105
1
169
"
8. Saoner
104
-
1
223
"
9. Kalmeshwar
120
220
3
165
"
10. Dhapewada
167
259
2
220
"
Handlooms Finance

The chief sources of finance required for running the cooperative societies were: (a) capital raised by the societies, (b) Government loans out of the cess fund and (c) Reserve Bank of India's scheme of financial assistance through Nagpur Cooperative Central Bank, Ltd. The funds of societies comprised ‘share capital’ and ‘reserve fund and other funds’ which amounted to Rs. 4,25,500 and Rs,. 7,18,500, respectively in 1958-59. The corresponding figures for 1959-60 were Rs. 4,26,150 and Rs. 7,58,925, respectively. Financial assistance in the form of loans out of the cess funds was rendered to the co-operative societies till 1956-57. The total quantum of a loan depended upon the number of looms owned by the society. An amount of Rs. 300 was advanced against each loom. Such assistance aimed at meeting the requirements of the working capital. The repayment of a loan was spread over ten annual instalments The details of the financial assistance rendered are summarised in the statement below:-

Year

(1)

Number of Societies

(2)

Total Loans

(3)

     
Rs.
(1)
1953-54
15
1,96,600
(2)
1954-55
20
3,79,400
(3)
1955-56
52
6,25,000
(4)
1956-57
38
4,82,000
 

The Reserve Bank of India's scheme of financial assistance to weavers co-operative societies was implemented for the first time in 1959-60. An amount of Rs. 4,40,000 was placed at the disposal of the Nagpur Central Co-operative Bank, Ltd., in 1959-60. The bank scrutinised 38 applications of societies and disbursed loans amounting to Rs. 2,23,200. In 1960-61, the Reserve Bank of India sanctioned a credit limit of Rs. 3,04,000. The Nagpur Central Co-operative Bank Ltd. utilised the credit limit to the extent of Rs. 2,93,955 for sanctioning and disbursing loans to 36 societies for working looms. The Bank granted loans to the tune of Rs. 89,955 out of its own funds. Thus the aggregate funds used by co-operative societies for their working capital as on 31-12-1960 were:

 
Rs.
Owned funds outstanding
11,92,410
Government loans outstanding
11,35,447
The Reserve Bank of India's Credit limit outstanding.
3,16,378
Bank's own funds
89,955
Total
27,34,190
 
The financial assistance offered when studied in relation to the looms and members of co-operative societies, works out to Rs. 160 per loom and Rs. 145 per member. In terms of actual production it amounts to Rs. 687 per loom and per member. The cost of production during the year ending 30th June 1960 amounted to Rs. 51,18,418 as against sales of the order of Rs. 63,51,996 during the same period.

Marketing

The products of handloom weavers find their way to the market through weavers co-operative societies, master cavers and their associations and Gujaris. In the co-operative sector, the primaries collect products from the members and organise sales through their sales depots in the wholesale or retail markets. Occasionally, they also employ hawkers and salesmen. They also get assistance from the Apex Handloom Weavers Co-operative Society, Ltd., Nagpur in marketing their goods. The societies also take the help of the Government handloom depots in selling their products. The Co-operative Department sanctioned loans to two societies for conducting Government aided sales depots. The Apex Weavers' Co-operative Society located at Nagpur has two sales depots which also help in promoting the sale of handloom fabrics. The Government extended financial assistance to the tune of Rs. 15,925 till 1959-60 in the form of management grants. A mobile van attached to the office of the Deputy Registrar of Co-operative Societies is contributing a great deal in popularising the handloom products.

The total sales effected by primary societies amounted to Rs. 63,51,996 in 1959-60. The Apex Weavers' Co-operative Society had 22 sales depots located at different places in Vidarbha region and three at Poona and Bombay. It effected sales of the order of Rs. 16,12,764 in 1959-60. It received financial assistance, in the form of grants, to the tune of Rs. 14,262. In addition to these facilities, the Government grants rebate to societies on the sale of handloom cloth. The main purpose behind the scheme of granting rebate is to encourage the sale of handloom fabrics and to secure a larger market for it. The amount of rebate reimbursed to the societies is given below:-

Year
Amount of rebate
Rs.
1957-58
12,02,831
1958-59
7,29,175
1959-60
4,81,326
1960-61 (up to 18-1-61)
2,58,845

 

 
Technical Improvement

The registration of handlooms effected by the Co-operative Department revealed that in 1959-60 there were 35,796 pitlooms, 754 framelooms and 55 powerlooms in the district. Most of the looms in operation were antiquated whose production averaged 3.66 to 4.57 metres (four to five yards) per weaver per day. The bulk of weavers are busy producing sarees which are famous throughout the country. They also produce dhotis, shirting and coating. The yarn used is normally of 80 count or still finer. Beaming system is not in vogue. The processes of sizing, beaming, etc., are traditional. Local dyers are assigned dyeing operation. The dyes used comprise indigo, nephthylamine, indenthrine and other direct colours.

With a view to ensuring the quality of handloom cloth in respect of standardization of fast colours, nine dye-houses have been chosen, each receiving the produce of one particular society. Financial assistance in the form of a loan of Rs. 11,700 and grants of Rs. 36,412 have been made to these selected dye-houses. Societies outside the group of these nine societies, each of which is tied down to a particular dye-house, can as well avail themselves of the services of these dye-houses. Another welcome measure intended to step up the rat of production of handloom cloth was that fifteen societies were advanced an amount of Rs. 11,336 by way of grants to enable them to purchase 52 framelooms, spare parts and accessories. The Central Textile Institute, Nagpur, has installed a calendering plant for handloom cloth with a capacity of calendering 7315.2 metres (8,000 yards) per day. However, experience has shown that the capacity of the calendering plant is not being fully exploited on account of the fact that only a few societies are taking advantage of this plant.

Training

In order to impart training in the improved methods of production of handloom cloth, the Department of Industries is running a number of training centres. They are located at Nagpur and mostly in the development blocks within the district. The Central Textile Institute, Nagpur, is also regularly conducting training classes in hand loom and powerloom weaving. It follows a scheme of granting stipends during the training period, to attract weavers particularly from rural areas. Till 1959-60, only six societies derived the benefit of this scheme by deputing 30 trainees to this institute. With a view to ensuring sound functioning of weavers' co-operative societies, a scheme of training secretaries in the maintenance of records and accounts has been launched. Two such classes are conducted at Nagpur. The course extends over a period of three months. Twenty-five secretaries were trained at these classes till 1959-60.

Raw Materials

The most essential raw material required for handloom industry is yarn, besides dyes, chemicals, artificial silk and thread. Though the Apex Society at Nagpur was expected to supply the necessary raw materials to its primary weavers' societies, it was not in a position to meet their demand fully. The aggregate value of raw materials purchased by the primaries from various sources during 1959-60 amounted to Rs. 34,10,648. The value of varn supplied by Apex Weavers Co-operative amounted to Rs. 4,03,756. In other words, the Apex Society could supply only 12 per cent of the quantity of yarn required by the primaries. The fluctuations in prices of yarn and other essential raw materials in the local market, Nagpur, also exercise adverse effect on the cost structure of the industry. The societies are required to pay local taxes on the raw materials. The societies ,in this district are mostly engaged in producing sarees of 60 and 80 counts. (1 Cotton count = 590.54 tex) There are also a few weavers' societies, especially of Momin weavers at Kamptee and Nagpur, which are engaged in the production of sarees of lower counts, i.e., 16, 20, 22, 24, 26, 30 and 40. Similarly, some societies are producing bed-sheets, coatings, towels, newars and bandage cloth, which require yarn of 2, 6, 2/40 and 2/64 counts.

Wage Pattern

The normal monthly production per loom per worker averages about 12 sarees valued at Rs. 120. The weaver gets a wage rate ranging between Rs. 5 and Rs. 7 per saree, depending upon the count and texture of the doth. This also includes the cost of preliminary processes involved in handloom-weaving. The earning of a weaver per month varies between Rs. 60 and Rs. 75. The usual weaving rates per saree, for different counts are as under:-

Count

(1)

With design

(2)

Plain

(3)

Rs.
Rs.
40 x 40
3.50
3.00
60 x 60
5.50
4.00
80 x 80
7.00
5.50

Powerlooms

Under the scheme of conversion of handlooms into powerlooms 55 powerlooms have been installed at Kamptee. Proposals for installation of over 400 additional powerlooms received from other weaving; centres at Umrer, Khapa, Kalmeshwar, Bhiwapur and Jalalkheda are under consideration.

Housing Colony

It has been proposed to construct two housing colonies for weavers, each consisting of 200 tenements at Nagpur and Kamptee. The Government have sanctioned financial assistance to the extent of Rs, 3,20,000 for their construction. The colony at Nagpur will be constructed with the help of the Nagpur Improvement Trust Authorities and that at Kamptee with the assistance of local societies.

Workshop

The Government has established a workshop at Nagpur with the object of manufacturing the handloom dobbies and other accessories required by the industry. The Government Model Dye House and the Calendering Plant, Nagpur, are entrusted with the work of dyeing the yarn required by Government and semi-Government institutions and co-operative societies. Similarly the finishing and calendering of the cloth of local printers and societies is being done by the calendering plant.


Problems

The high price of handloom cloth is one of the main reasons for its incapacity to withstand the market competition. The reasons for the high cost structure of the industry are manifold, Firstly, the weavers do not have adequate capital necessary for storing raw materials like yarn, sesal fibre, etc. Secondly, because of higgling-haggling between the mill owners and the manufacturers, the prices of yarn and dyes fluctuate whereas the price of cloth does not rise or fall proportionately. Thirdly, as the goods are to be disposed of during the year of production, the profits fall to a low level. Thus the cost of production becomes uneconomic. Fourthly, the middlemen unduly dominate the scene and reap the profits by exploiting the booms and slumps of the market. However, powerlooms should be installed by separate societies and these should not be mixed up with handloom societies. While encouraging the powerlooms, the interests of handloom weavers should be safeguarded.

The present field of reservation for handloom industry needs to be extended so as to include the production of sarees and dhotis exclusively by handlooms. This modification will ensure sufficient scope for the employment of those who are unemployed and fuller employment of the underemployed. During the slack season, the goods accumulate and the societies are not in a position to dispose them of; hence, the necessity of bank credit through pledge or hypothecation of stocks. The apex weavers' societies should be allowed to open sales depots outside the jurisdiction of societies, as well as outside the State. The facility of rebate on sales should also be given to them.

Auto-repairing and general engineering

General engineering and repairing of vehicles is an important industry in the district. Factors governing the demand for the services rendered by this industry generally are the increase in the level of income, urbanisation development of transport and communications and growing industrialisation. The increasing tempo of building construction in the area and the replacement requirements of existing buildings also step up the demand for such products as roof trusses, window grills, gates and conservancy equipments. The additional generation of electric power in Vidarbha Region will further step up the demand for transmission towers. The demand for bandsaws from saw-mills will increase commensurately with the increase in supply of timber. The expansion programme of motorable roads and the consequent increase in automobile vehicles and marketing centres will also bring about an appreciable rise in the demand for the services rendered by the industry.

The number of various large-scale and small-scale engineering and repairing units in Nagpur district in the year 1959-60 was 42 employing 2,687 workers. All the large-scale units were located in Nagpur City. According to the findings of a survey of engineering units conducted in 1954 by the Government of Madhya Pradesh, there were 623 unregistered units employing 1,278 workers in Nagpur district. Of these, 293 units employing 864 workers were classified as small-scale units and 330 units with 414 workers as cottage units.

Statistics relating to some units [1958]. (Source : Area Survey Report of Nagpur and Bhandara Districts. The figures pertain to both the districts.)

TABLE No. 6

No.

(1)

Items

(2)

Large-scale
Small-scale
Manufacturing
(3)
Servicing
(4)
Manufacturing
(5)
Servicing
(6)
1
Number of Units
2
1
6
6
2
Workers employed
81
70
153
89
3
Total Capital (Rs. in lakhs)
7.59
0.61
7.15
3.02
(a) Fixed

4.39

0.34
4.60
0.64
(b) Working
3.20
0.27
2.55
2.28
4
Installed Capacity (value in lakhs of Rs.)
7.77
-
13.45
-
5
Production (value in lakhs of Rs.)
7.05
2.94
8.46
6.78

Various registered units undertook manufacturing and servicing activities on a varying scale. The products of the manufacturing units included structural products, bandsaws, lanterns, burners. conservancy equipment and bodies for trucks and buses. Some of the servicing units manufactured minor spare parts of sugarcane crushers, rice mills and colliery machinery.

Of the 31 reporting concerns, 3 were established between 1930 and 1940, 12 between 1940 and 1950 and 16 between 1950 and 1960. All these worked throughout the year, but their individual working days varied considerably but generally exceeded 270. The cumulative fixed and working capital of the reporting units was Rs. 18,53,203 and Rs. 12,58,339, respectively, at the end of 1960.

The machinery of general engineering units consisted of lathes of various sizes, grinders, electric and gas welding sets, hack-saws and various types of machines like drilling machine, shaping machine, cutting machine, milling machine, moulding machine, edging machine, bending machine, shearing and punching machine. The units engaged in the repairs of automobiles had lathes, hydraulic ramp lift, pressure washing machines and boring machines. The tools and equipment of different units varied according to their requirements and specialized products.

The raw materials comprised iron and steel bars and rods, plates and sheets, angles, wires, pipes, beams, casting and moulding parts, tin, pig-iron, brass, white metal and rolled strips, paints and varnishes. The 12 units, which reported their key statistics for the year 1958-59, consumed raw materials worth Rs. 8,01,262 during the year. The sale of their various products amounted to Rs. I3,11,700 in Nagpur and .the neighbouring area of Vidarbha region and Madhya Pradesh. These concerns employed 275 workers and paid Rs. 2,81,124 by way of wages and salaries. The various items of fuel used primarily included coke, coal, mobile oil and electricity. The value of fuel consumed during 1958-59 by the 12 units amounted to Rs. 53,530.

The other 12 units which supplied their statistics for the year 1959-60, consumed raw materials valued at Rs. 17,63,750. They employed 353 workers and paid Rs. 2,37,988 during the year as their wages and salaries. The annual consumption of fuel cost them Rs. 54,.740 whereas their products were sold for Rs. 25,14,053.

Some of the units which did not undertake manufacturing were engaged in auto-repairing and servicing. The main difficulty faced by this industry was the shortage of raw materials such as steel, tin sheets and coke. The quota of iron and steel was too inadequate to meet their requirements. Some units complained of dearth of skilled technicians and they experienced difficulties in obtaining finance for the purchase of new machinery.

Tea-processing, blending and packing

The branch of a private limited concern located at Kamptee was engaged in processing, blending and packing tea. The concern was established in 1942. The vicinity of markets for finished products favoured the location of the factory at Kamptee. The concern worked perennially. The fixed capital invested was of the order of Rs. 9,12,895 whereas the working capital amounted to Rs. 32,13,303.

The unit was engaged in processing and blending tea before it was sent to various markets in India. Tea leaves constituted the raw material which was collected from the various plantations and tea estates belonging to the company. The following figures give the quantity and value of raw tea which was processed in the unit:-

Year
Raw Tea in kg.*
Value in Rs.
1957
53,92,268.739
(1,19,03,463)
2,13,71,515
1958
56,52,121.770
(1,24,77,090)
2,08,66,408
1959
59,10,392.925
(1,30,47,225)
2,42,16,909
1960
66,43,312.044
(1,46,65,148)
3,16,86,565
1961
69,06,818.067
(1,52,46,839)
3,48,38,028

*Figures in brackets indicate lbs.

The machines and appliances used included rotopans for hand-packing, benches, Kora pice packet machines and Lessar machines, bag-making machine, printing machines, lining cutter machines and blending bulker. Electricity was used as fuel, the bill for its annual consumption coming to about Rs. 20,000.

The concern employed 35 persons for supervision and administration besides 558 workers. The annual wage bill of the workers amounted to Rs. 10,42,506. The administrative staff was paid Rs. 1,50,328 and other benefits worth Rs. 98,409 were also granted to them. The mistries, foreman mistries and drivers were paid Rs. 70, Rs. 95 and Rs. 65 per month, respectively. The other workers like weight checkers, box makers, strappers and packers were paid hourly wages.

The company sold the products through its own selling organization which had 2,000 salesmen spread all over the country. The following statement gives the quantity of package tea produced and its value based on average or estimated price.

Year

(1)

Quantity of
package tea
produced
(2)
Value based on
average or
estimated
price
(3)
(in kg.)*
(in Rs.)
1957
53,63,962.128
(1,18,40,976)
2,63,62,749
1958
56,55,726.744
(1,24,85,048)
2,67,97,907
1959
59,22,000.597
(1,30,72,849)
3,00,54,453
1960
66,44,912.493
(1,46,68,681)
4,02,06,283
1961
69,07,223.502
(1,52,47,734)
4,40,19,959

*Figures in brackets indicate 1bs.

The package tea was sold throughout India. The main difficulty encountered by the unit was in securing machinery, particularly on account of scarcity of foreign exchange.

Carbonic gas manufacture

There was one branch of a company manufacturing carbonic gas (chemically known as carbon dioxide). This unit established in 1954 was located at Kamptee. The carbonic gas is used in the manufacture of aerated waters and as a fire extinguisher. The fixed capital of the concern stood at Rs. 7,28,360 of which Rs. 3,51,136 were accounted for by plant and machinery. The working capital amounted to Rs. 1,11,410. The concern operated seasonally and the work was carried on in three shifts. The gas producer was the chief machine. Electricity, coke, kerosene, grease and petrol were all used as fuel. The following statement gives the quantities of various kinds of fuel used during the year 1959:

Type of fuel

(1)

Unit of Quantity

(2)

Quantity

(3)

Value in Rs.

(4)

1.
Coke Metric tons.
100.589 (99 tons.)
7,218
2.
Petrol Litres
781.90(172 gallons).
1,225
3.
Grease kg .
48.99 (1081bs.)
100
4.
Kerosene Oil Litres
454.60 (100 gallons).
150
5.
Electricity K.W.L.
19,723 K.W.L.
2,689

The main raw material consumed was hard coke which was purchased directly from the collieries under permits. The quantity of hard coke consumed during 1959 amounted to 202.19 tonnes (199 tons) valued at Rs. 14,437. In the same year 202.194 metric tons (3,91,339 lbs.) of carbonic gas valued at Rs. 1,44,110 was produced. It was sold locally and was also in demand from the neighbouring States of Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. The unit had a productive capacity of 2721.552 kg. (6,000 lbs.) of carbonic gas per day comprising three shifts. The unit employed 30 workers and disbursed Rs. 23,277 during 1959 as wages and salaries. The number of persons other than workers was five, who received Rs. 13,015 in the form of salary. The money value of other benefits and privileges granted to the workers amounted to Rs. 822. It was observed that the unit worked below its full capacity.

Ginning and Pressing

Ginning and pressing is an age-old industry of Nagpur district. The following is a description of the industry as it existed in the beginning of this century.

"Twenty of the ginning and pressing factories are located in the city of Nagpur, five at Kamptee, six at Saoner, seven at Katol town, one at Kelod and one at Kondhali in Katol tahsil. Only two of the ginning factories contain double-roller gins, the rest having only single rollers. Five factories contain more than 50 gins, three between 40 and 50, and ten below 40. The collective capital of all the ginning and pressing factories is Rs. 25 lakhs. The total average number of operatives working in the factories was 2,787 in 1906 as against 3,303 in the year preceding".(C. P. District Gazetteers, Vol. A, Nagpur District (1908), p. 184.)

According to 1931 Census, "the number of cotton ginning and pressing factories also rose up to 1,929. An over-investment of capital occurred in this industry and led to the system of pools under which many factories remained idle and the lower number of factories that worked, created monopolistic conditions in the industry resulting in an increase in the cost of ginning and pressing. This operated as a fresh inroad of middlemen into the prices which agriculturists could obtain for their produce."

This industry acts as a feeder to the cotton spinning and weaving industry. With the emergence of Nagpur as one of the important textile and handloom weaving centres the industry flourished considerably.

Cotton is one of the major cash crops of Nagpl1r. Production of cotton in 1956 and 1957 was 51,000 bales (each bale consisting of 392 pounds) and 84,000 bales, respectively. Cotton which is the prime requisite of the ginning and pressing industry, . is available locally as well as in the neighbouring districts of Vidarbha.

Out of the 16 factories, six were located at Saoner and four at Nagpur. There were three factories at Katol, two at Kondhali and one at Narkhed. The units generally worked seasonally, between November and April when the crops are harvested. During the off-season, the plant and machinery remain idle. Decorticators and expellers for crushing oilseeds were attached to a few factories which worked in off-season. Not all the units purchased cotton used for ginning and pressing. Some factories did so on behalf of their customers and charged them for the services rendered.

 
 
Tools and equipment of these factories comprised steam or oil engines, boilers, single or double roller gins, high and low pressure presses, drilling machines and cotton operators. Electricity was chiefly used as fuel along with diesel oil, groundnut husk, coal and. wood. Ten units employed 956 workers, both men and women. The workers included engineers, engine drivers, boiler attendants, firemen, roll-cutters and ginmen. They were paid on monthly basis. The two textile mills in Nagpur demanded the major portion of the products of these units.

Leather-tanning

One concern tanning raw hides and skins was located at. Kamptee. It was established in 1949. It worked throughout the year, its working days in 1959 being 305. The fixed capital of the unit stood at Rs. 33,000 which included building and machinery valued at Rs. 25,000 and Rs. 5,000, respectively. The working capital as reported by the unit, was Rs. 1,50,000. The equipment comprised tanning pits, lime pits, washing tanks (nivalan), cutters, wooden blocks, marble stones, scythe, axe, and simple tools like ari (awl), rapi (knife), tocha (pokar) and tipas (wooden mallets).

The raw materials used were dry cattle hides, wet, salted buffalo hides and tanning material. The tanning material included lime, potassium dichromate, babul bark and hirda (myrobalan). The following table presents the quantities and value of various raw materials consumed during the year 1959:-

 

TABLE No. 7

Raw material

(1)

Quantity

(2)

Value in Rs.

(3)

1.
Dry Cattle hides
4,53,00.000
(1,00,000 1bs.)
75,000
2.
Wet salted buffalo hides
1,44,960.000
(3,20,000 1bs.)
1,60,000
3.
Tanning material
2,81,049.720
(7,530 Mds.)
39,600

 

 

The raw materials were purchased from the neighbouring districts of Vidarbha and Madhya Pradesh. The pieces of hides used during 1959 numbered 20,000. There are two methods of tanning. One is known as 'bag tanning' which requires small amount of capital. The process of tanning is complete within a month. Other method is known as ‘pit tanning' which needs higher initial investment. Generally speaking, the first method is commonly followed in the various districts of Maharashtra.

The hide is at first macerated in lime water to separate the hair and fleshy parts from it. When the hide is well soaked, the hair is scrapped with a scraper. The fat and fleshy parts are removed with a knife. After it is washed, the hide is soaked for three days in a solution comprising three parts of babul bark and one part of hirda water. To tan the hide thoroughly, soaking is repeated thrice. Then it is tied into a bag with a stronger solution of babul bark and hirda water and hung up. It is then to the sun for seven days. The process is completed when on the eighth day the hide is washed again, dried and oiled. The products of the unit included tanned leather and various soles, like buff soles, wax soles and press soles. The value of the products amounted to Rs. 2,90,000 in 1959. The products were sold in Bombay, Madras and Nagpur markets. Electricity was used as fuel. 1he annual consumption of electricity in 1959 was worth Rs. 1,000.

Workers were employed on daily wages. The number of workers employed during 1959 was 25 who were paid Rs. 22,000 as wages in the same year. There were five persons other than workers employed to look after administrative work. They received Rs. 5,000 as salary in the same year. The money value of other facilities and benefits accorded to them amounted to Rs. 500.

Glasswares

There were two units at Nagpur engaged in the glassware industry. Their main products were chimneys, lampwares, bottles, jars, jugs, tumblers and flower vases. Manufacturing processes in these units mostly consisted of hand-operations and hence the magnitude of capital investment in fixed assets was smaller than that of working capital.

There were two units at Nagpur engaged in the glassware But they were not available in sufficient quantity. This retarded the manufacturing activity of the units. The shortage of high grade .coal was accentuated with the commissioning of the Bhilai Steel Plant. Consequently, the units had to depend on coal available from Chanda. The high content of ash in it, rendered it unsuitable for use by the units.

The main processes of blowing, pressing and cutting were done by skilled persons by hand. Both the units worked for more than one shift. About 60 per cent of their total production was sold in Bombay and Calcutta markets. These units met only partially the demand for their products. It was assessed that their production was not oriented to the local demand. There was little competition between the products of the two firms as the nature of the product differed to some extent. In the case of certain commodities like chimney the sales were confined to rural areas. The units employed wholesalers for the sale of their products. In the outside areas, commission was paid, the rate of commission varying between 12 per cent and 25 per cent according to the type of product and volume of sales.

The percentage of skilled to the total number of employees was fairly high. The wage rates generally offered varied between Rs. 2.50 and Rs. 4.00 per day for a skilled labourer and between Rs. 1.25 and Rs. 1.75 for an unskilled labourer. The units reported difficulty in getting skilled labourer at reasonable wage rates. The units favoured the setting up of a quartz crushing plant to ensure regular supply of sand.

 
Saw Mills

The most important forest produce in Nagpur district is timber, the noteworthy being teak among the superior varieties. The annual production of teak during 1955-1958 ranged from 22.6535 to 33.9802 metres (800 to 1,200 cubic feet); The bulk of it was consumed locally in furniture-making and residential constructions. Khair is used for preparing kath (catechu) and Salai for making packing cases (for packing oranges) and photo-frames. A number of saw mills were established at Nagpur to utilise the forest produce. Most of the 44 reporting concerns were located at Nagpur and Kanhan and worked perennially. Of these, 13 units were established between 1940 and 1950, and 31 units between 1950 and 1960. The number of working days per year generally varied between 275 and 312. One unit, however, worked seasonally for about 150 days.

The aggregate amount of fixed capital of all the reporting units taken together amounted to Rs. 14,61,230 as against the working capital of Rs. 19,42,122. The value of machinery varied from unit to unit but was generally below Rs. 10,000. The machinery consisted of bandsaw machine (electrically operated), circular saw, moulding machine, sharpening machine, grinder and electric motor. Electricity was the chief fuel and the annual consumption bill amounted to Rs. 84,093.

The principal item of raw material was wood (especially teak). The total quantity of wood consumed by reporting units during one year was 344589 metres (12,16,898 cubic feet). The reporting units employed 577 persons, comprising 5]9 workers and 58 persons other than workers. They were paid in a year Rs. 5,25,245 by way of wages and salaries.

The products of the industry were sawn timber and timber waste. The yearly product was valued at Rs. 78,67,481. Though there was sufficient local demand for the products, a part thereof found its way to Bombay and Calcutta markets.

Oil Mills

Oilseed pressing is a fairly old industry. In former times, every village used to have its few oilmen and ghanis for the crushing of oilseeds. But in recent times due to competition from the oil mills, the artisans' business has declined.

The number of oil mills in Nagpur was four in 1960. Of the reporting oil mills, two were located at Nagpur and one at Katol. All the units were established after 1950. Two of them worked perennially and the other two worked seasonally. The latter did not operate in the rainy season when seeds were not available at moderate rates.

The aggregate fixed capital of the reporting concerns was of the order of Rs. 2,18,313 the major portion of which was accounted for by the value of land, building, machinery and equipment. Their working capital stood at Rs. 2,02,914. Though electricity was chiefly used as power, one unit used coal also. Their annual expenditure on fuel was Rs. 37,153.

The machinery consisted of decorticator for dehusking the oil-seeds, expeller for crushing the seeds, filter machines or filter pump for oil purification and electric motor for the generation of power. All the units, however, did not possess these items of equipment. Of these, expeller was the only common machine, owned by each reporting unit. The investment in machinery by the various units varied considerably.

As compared to groundnut, the area under cultivation of linseed is more in Nagpur district. The areas under cultivation of linseed and groundnut in 1956-57 were 32695.795 hectares and 4294.932 hectares (80,793 acres and 10,613 acres), respectively whereas their production amounted to 8495.79 metric tons and 3962.40 metric tons (8,362 tons and 3,900 tons), respectively. The corresponding figures for 1957-58 were 33727.340 hectares (83,342 acres) and 6010.801 hectares {14,853 acres} and 7965.496 metric tons and 5994.496 metric tons (7,781 tons and 5,906 tons), respectively. Perhaps this explains why the quantity of 1iseed crushed by the oil mills was more than that of groundnut. The value of annual consumption of linseed and groundnut taken together was placed at Rs. 13,15,431. The products of the mills included linseed oil, groundnut oil and oilcakes. These were sold for Rs. 14,06,494. The units employed 80 workers which included 20 persons employed in administrative and supervisory capacity. They were paid Rs. 42,477 by way of remuneration during one year. The products, viz., linseed oil, groundnut oil and oilcakes were sold locally and in the neighbouring districts of Vidarbha.

Foundry

Of the five registered foundry units in Nagpur district, four were located at Nagpur and one at Kamptee. Some of them manufactured cast iron articles such as cinema fixtures, earthing plates, manhole covers, pulleys, spare parts of ginning machinery, oil mill accessories and cane crushers. Recently they have also undertaken the manufacture of metric weights. Others were attached to general engineering workshops. The two reporting units located at Nagpur, were established in 1930 and 1942, respectively. They worked throughout the year, their working days varying between 300 and 320.

The fixed capital of the two reporting units amounted to Rs. 1,55,312. Their working capital stood at Rs. 63,500. A relative concentration of various industrial establishments in Nagpur city ensured a steady demand for the products of these concerns. The tools and equipment of the units comprised cupola, moulding sands, various patterns necessary for moulds and the requisite tools for making these patterns.

The castings produced by some of the units were said to be somewhat defective in quality, as some of them had blow holes. This defect was attributed to one or more of such reasons as unsuitable composition of moulding sand, use of iron scrap as raw material and lack of proper knowhow. Persons from neighbouring centres like Gondia and Tumsar go to Nagpur for heavy castings because such work is not undertaken at those places due to inadequate equipment with them.

The raw materials consumed included among others, pig iron, brass, wood, white metal, foundry sand and steel. All the units complained. about the shortage of pig iron and foundry sand of appropriate variety. As the three giant steel plants at Rourkela, Bhilai and Durgapur have already gone into production, the supply position of pig iron is expected to improve. Most of the units financed manufacturing activities from their own resources. The value of raw materials consumed by the two units during one year amounted to Rs. 87,759. Besides electricity, hard coke was also used as fuel. The annual expenditure on fuel absorbed nearly Rs. 17,000. The products of the reporting units which included cast iron, manhole covers with frames, road boxes, cast iron machine parts, collapsible gates and cast iron metric weights, fetched Rs. 2,54,700 during 1959. The products were generally sold locally to wholesalers and retailers.


The units experienced difficulty in getting skilled pattern makers and moulders. This shortage was the consequence of migration of skilled local workers to Bhilai. The reporting units employed 58 persons including 50 workers and eight persons employed in supervisory and administrative capacity. Their wage bill amounted to Rs. 40,151 in 1959.

Rice and Dal Mills

Of the six reporting units, four were rice mills and two dal mills. The two dal mills were located at Nagpur and two rice mills at Ramtek. One of the reporting units was established as early as in 1932, two were established after World War II and three units after 1950. Five units worked throughout the year, their working days varying between 252 and 300. The rice mill functioning seasonally, operated nearly for 200 days in 1959.

The fixed capital of the reporting concerns amounted to Rs. 6,27,000 as against the working capital of Rs. 1,80,000. The amount of working capital does not appear to be commensurate with fixed capital. However, it was due to the fact that some units did not purchase raw materials. They only charged for milling and husking rice and dal. Electricity was the chief fuel, used, though mobile and crude oil was also used by some units. The total expenditure on fuel during one year stood at Rs. 20,206.

The machinery consisted of grinding. stones, rollers, elevators and fillers. Crushers and hullers were used for polishing and husking rice or for crushing pulses. When flouring was undertaken side by side, a pair of millstones in the grinding machine and an electric motor or an oil engine were deemed necessary. The investment of various concerns in machinery differed considerably. The raw materials used were rice, tur dal, lakh dal and gram dal brought for husking and crushing. The value of these commodities, required during one year amounted to Rs. 41,45,427. The sale of products stood at Rs. 51,34,277.

The units employed 91 persons comprising 50 men, 24 women and 17 members of the supervisory staff. They were paid Rs. 46,246 as wages and salaries during one year.

The products were mostly sold locally and the units did not encounter any specific marketing difficulties. But in some cases, the machinery was old and obsolete and needed replacement. Consequently the units needed funds for introduction of automatic machinery. However, the required capital was not readily available.

Printing and Book Binding

In a city widely known for its cultural and educational activities, the existence of numerous presses is quite natural and inevitable. There are as many as 23 printing presses in Nagpur catering to the needs of the educational institutions and other customers. One of the 23 reporting presses was established as early as in 1896. The other 22 concerns were founded between 1914 and 1959. All the concerns worked perennially. The actual working days ranged between 287 and 350.

The fixed capital of the concerns amounted to Rs. 66.80,088 whereas their working capital stood at Rs. 20,96,086. The fixed capital of the largest press was Rs. 49,27,700 as against its working capital of Rs. 7,58,700. The fixed capital and working capital of the smallest concern amounted to Rs. 13,000 and Rs. 5,000 respectively.

The equipment and machinery of the various concerns differed according to the magnitude of their investment. Printing work consists of litho-printing, offset printing and block-printing. Prepartion of drawings and designs, cutting and book-binding, block-making and type foundry are some of the other processes undertaken. The machinery of printing and composing comprised cylinder printing machine, automatic cylinders, letterpress printing machine, treadle machine and hand presses. The binding machinery included stitching, cutting, ruling, perforating, punching, folding, numbering, eyeletting and card-board cutting machines. The printing machines in many of the presses were modern, consisting of offset machines, lino, mono and calendar printing machines. automatic caster, engraver and litho machines.

Power was used as fuel by most of the concerns. However, occasionally coal and firewood were also used as fuel. The annual consumption of power amounted to Rs. 76,380.

Generally only men were employed in these concerns. The total number of workers in the reporting concerns was 1,278 and, Rs. 19,19,653 were paid to them annually by way of wages and salaries. Three big concerns employed more than 100 persons, two employed workers numbering between 50 and 100 and workers employed in the remaining concerns numbered less than 50, ranging from 8 to 45. The three concerns employing more than 100 persons paid Rs. 12,99,918 by wav of wages and two employing workers between 50 and 100 paid .Rs. 1,60,009 as wages.

The main raw-materials of these concerns were paper, varnish, spirit, wax, ink, type metal, stationery and binding materials. Paper of various types like art paper, leather paper and brown paper was the largest single item of expenditure. Ink, glue, mobile oil, soap and kerosene were required for printing. Binding cloth, rexine, leather canvas, glue and cardboard were necessary for binding. Paper was purchased from big commercial centres such as Bombay, Calcutta and Kanpur. Superior art paper was imported from foreign countries. Other raw materials were purchased locally or at Bombay. The three big concerns. (employing more than 100 persons) purchased annually raw materials worth Rs. 32,23,126 while the remaining 20 establishments consumed raw materials worth Rs. 6,64,788.

Some of the establishments printed newspapers. Others were engaged in printing books, forms, magazines, bills, cash memos, labels, letter heads and handbills. The gross earnings of the three big presses amounted to Rs. 56,85,158 and those of others Rs. 13,11,564. The main difficulties of this industry were replacement of outmoded and worn-out machinery, obtaining raw materials and dearth of skilled personnel.

Ceramics

One large-scale ceramic unit in Nagpur district was engaged in the manufacture of stoneware jars, cups, saucers and fire-bricks.


Its total investment amounted to Rs. 22.5 lakhs. The fixed capital of the concern stood at Rs. 10 lakhs which included machinery and equipment worth Rs. 5 lakhs. The unit had an installed capacity of 6803.88 kg. (15,000 lbs.) of stoneware jars and 50 gross of cups and saucers per day on a single shift basis. But due to the difficulties of transportation of raw materials, competition and labour trouble, it could utilise only 40 to 60 per cent of its installed capacity.

The raw materials included among others, china-clay, fire-clay, felspar, quartz, marble chips, pipe clay and gypsum. Fire-clay, china-clay, felspar and quartz were obtained from its own mines situated in Chanda [located at a distance of about 160.93 km. (100 miles) from Nagpur] and on the outskirts of Chhindwada district of Madhya Pradesh. In 1959, the consumption of these raw materials amounted to 3068.320 metric tons (3,020 tons), the quantity of fire-clay being about 60 per cent or 1828.800 metric tons. The chief fuel used was power, while coal and fuel oil were used for heating purposes.

The unit employed 514 workers in 1959. On an average a skilled worker was paid Rs. 3.00 per day whereas an unskilled worker earned Rs. 1.70 per day. About half of its total annual output was sent to the dealers and agents in Bombay. The rest was marketed through its own agents in Baroda, Nagpur and Andhra Pradesh.

The products of the concern faced competition in respect of quality and price from two other large-scale units in Vidarbha region and from units working outside the region. The sales of the concern which amounted to Rs. 8.2 lakhs in 1956 had increased to Rs. 10.47 lakhs in 1958.

Art Silk

Nagpur is famous throughout India for silk-bordered sarees and cloth. With the changing times, the art silk industry has come to be established in Nagpur. There are four industrial concerns manufacturing, twisting and doubling art silk and rayon. All the reporting factories were located at Nagpur. Three of them were established after Independence, while one was established in 1936. The nature of the industry is such that continuous and not intermittent production, is essential to run the industry on a profitable basis. Consequently, all the reporting factories worked practically throughout the year. However, the actual working days varied between 290 and 305. The products included cloth embroidery and silk thread.

The fixed capital of all the concerns combined together stood at Rs. 3,49,985 while the working capital amounted to Rs. 2,38,297. The plant inched the following items of machinery: (1) Winding machine (sometimes the thread winding machine was a hand. Machine), (2) Twisting machine, (3) Boiler, (4) Warping machine, (5) Sizing machine, (6) Pin winding machine, (7) Doubling machine and (8) Electric generator.

Fuel

Electricity was chiefly used as power. The bill for annual consumption of electricity amounted to Rs. 5,586. The concerns employed as many as 188 workers (both men and women). A sum of Rs. 1,29,046 was paid to them annually by way of wages and salaries.

Raw Materials

The chief raw materials used were art silk, staple fibre, rayon yarn, dyes, chemicals and cotton yarn. (of 20 and 30 count). The factories consumed 120572.111 kg. (2,65,987 lbs.) of raw materials, valued at Rs. 10,86,211. The total production of cloth Was 368959.50 metres (4,05,450 yards} valued at Rs. 17,36,171.

The products were sold in Jubbulpore, Burhanpur; Kamptee and Raipur as well as in Bombay, Poona, and other parts of India.

Ready-made cones of yarn are purchased from the market. In the winding department, the yarn is wound round the bobbins with the help of machines, The yarn is then twisted and doubled with the help of mad1ines. This is done to strengthen the thread. Thereafter, threads are woven into cloth with the help of other machines.

The art silk and rayon yarn were mainly purchased from Bombay. As their supply was not adequate, the owners of these concerns found it difficult to secure the yarn at reasonable rates. The scarcity of skilled labour was another problem faced by the industry. Besides, the industry was also confronted with the difficulty of securing adequate finance for modernising the plant and machinery.

Dyeing and Bleaching

Nagpur, an important centre of textile industry, is also quite famous for handloom weaving. This in its turn has given rise to some ancillary industries. Dyeing and bleaching is one of such industries which is tending to localize in Nagpur. It is a market. oriented industry, the demand being mainly local. Nagpur sarees are well-known throughout India for their fast colours. All the six reporting factories were situated in Nagpur. One of them was a Government Model Dye House. All the factories worked perennially. However, their working days ranged between 2901 and 323. While only one factory was established in 1944, the rest were established after 1950.

The fixed capital of the reporting factories stood at Rs. 1,58,620 and the working capital at Rs. 3,26,448. The equipment of smaller concerns was simple and consisted of a few pots and pans for boiling and rinsing cloth. The dyeing was done by hand and no machinery was used. The Government Model Dye House, however, possessed elaborate equipment, including kier (a bleaching vat), hydro-extractor, dyeing tanks, boiler and bleaching tank. The value of these tools was reported to be Rs. 28,000. The Government had provided the dye house with land and building.

Fuel

Electric power was used as fuel by the larger concerns. Other concerns used firewood and hard coal as fuel. Annually, fuel worth Rs. 14,172 was consumed by the various dyeing establishments. The raw materials required by these factories comprised various colours and dyes, castor oil, sulphuric acid and other chemicals, soaps, etc. The raw materials were purchased locally as also from the Bombay market. The yarn and cloth were available at Nagpur. The factories used raw materials worth Rs. 9,58,864 during 1959. Individually the factory with a total capital of Rs. 1,00,941 consumed raw materials worth Rs. 62,339 in 1959. The value of the product (i.e. dyed and bleached yarn and cloth) amounted to Rs. 10,76,474. The products are in demand in all the districts of Vidarbha and Madhya Pradesh as well.

The total number of workers employed by these factories was 118 who were paid Rs. 88,720 annually by way of wages. Various factories employed workers numbering between 10 and 22 They were paid wages which varied between Rs. 9,264 and Rs. 28,833.

The fixed capital of the Government Model Dye House amounted to Rs. 43,000 (including the cost of the plant and machinery) whereas its working capital stood at Rs. 10,000. It employed seven technical and three non-technical persons who were paid Rs. 9,264 by way of wages. It consumed colours and chemicals, for processing of the yarn' and cloth, worth Rs. 2,000. The following figures give the processing charges during 1959:

Item

(1)

Quantity

(2)

Processing
charges
(3)
Metres
Yards
Rs.
1.
Bleaching Cloth
19,68,07.52
(2,16,272)
6,361.42
2.
Dyeing Cloth
12,94.02
(1,422)
1,346.23
3.
Yarn Dyeing
63,78.19
(7,009)
3,943.00

There is one concern, sponsored by the Government of Maharashtra, manufacturing paints, enamels, varnishes, lacquers, oils and litho inks. It is situated at Kamptee. It is also engaged in mining manganese ore. It was established in 1948 and offered continuous employment to the workers. The fixed capital of the concern stood at Rs. 3,97,160 which included land and buildings valued at Rs. 1.76,849. Machinery, tools and other equipment accounted for Rs. 1,80,232. The machinery consisted of ball mills, pug mixers, refiners, raymond and blower machines and an oil expeller. The working capital of the concern was Rs. 2,94,330. It employed 33 workers (including 3 women) and 12 persons other than workers. They were annually paid Rs. 15,373 by way of wages and salaries.

Coal and electricity were used as fuel. Consumption of fuel was placed at Rs. 7,830. The quantity of coal consumed amounted to 45.722 metric tons (45 tons) and that of electricity 23,552 kw. in the year 1957.

Raw Materials

The principal raw materials used; were titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, white lead, rosin, borax powder, ultramarine blue, linseed oil, castor oil, barytes, talc, china clay, purple red oxide, yellow ochre and french chalk. The actual quantity of raw materials consumed was 315.992 metric tons (311 tons) valued at Rs. 1.,62,205. Linseed, which constituted 50 per cent of the cost of oxide paints, was produced in Nagpur and Bhandara districts to the extent of 16256 metric tons (16,000 tons) per annum. Red oxide was available in Chanda and Yeotmal districts and in Bellary district of Mysore. Barytes and dolomite were obtained from Jubbulpore and Bilaspur districts of Madhya Pradesh.

The principal products of the concern in 1957 are detailed below:

Item

(1)

Quantity

(2)

Value
(in rupees)
(3)
1.
Paste
6,46,71.395 kg.
(1,273 cwt.)
45,398
2.
R.M.Paint
2,93,12.955 Kg.
(577 cwt.)
56,190
3.
R.M. Paint
818.28 litres
(180 gallons)
2,66,880
4.
Aluminium Paint
590.98 litres
(130 gallons)
2,876

The demand for the product originated in the three States of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Mysore. The local demand emanated from the general engineering units engaged in automobile body-building and automobile repairing as well as from buildings under construction for residential and industrial purposes. The total annual capacity of the plant was reported to be 3657.8 metric tons (3,600 tons) of paints and 1219.3 metric tons (1,200 tons) of varnishes. The sale of the products of the concern amounted to Rs. 1,33,000 in 1956 and Rs. 2,04,000 in 1958. The products faced competition in the market from more popular brands. The concern mainly depended on Government orders for the sale of its product and no specific efforts were made towards the development of a general market.

The concern also raised manganese ore from the mine. The ore was raised at the cost of Rs. 35,220 and Rs. 4,635 in the years 1960 and 1961, respectively. It was sold for Rs. 23,206 and Rs. 2,803, respectively. As the concern was running into losses. it was leased out to private agency for management

Bidi-making

Bidi-making was another small-scale industry localized chiefly kamptee and Nagpur. Out of the 19 factories, eight were located at Kamptee, seven at Nagpur and one each at Saoner, Khat, Kodamendhi and Dodhamendi. These units were either head offices or branch offices with their headquarters outside Nagpur district.

The labourers working in the factory premises were directly employed by the factory owners. Besides, middlemen and con. tractors who had their own feeder factories also supplied bidis to these factories. According to this system, the owners provided the middleman with a fixed quota of tobacco and leaves and asked for a fixed number of bidis in return for which commission was given to the middlemen. These middlemen, in turn, hired labourers and got the work done. The labourers were tied down to the middlemen who tried to exploit them. The remuneration received by the workers was far from satisfactory. They were paid between Rs. 1.25 and Rs. 1.37 per thousand bidis.

Bidi-making was entirely done by hand and there was little or no use of machinery. The tools required, were simple instruments such as a brick furnace, metal trays for heating tobacco, a pair of scissors and a knife. The brick furnace was a peculiar construction of bricks for baking bidis. It was locally known as, Tundoor'. Its cost was usually in the neighbourhood of Rs. 2,000. Generally, a factory had two' Tundoors' and the baking capacity of a 'Tundoor' was two lakh bidis at a time. The process of baking bidis required nearly 12 hours. The bidis were packed soon after baking so as to keep them crisp and fresh.

Raw materials comprised tobacco of different qualities, leaves, thread, packing paper and labels. Quality tobacco which was favourite with the people, was purchased at Nipani (in Belgaum district), Kolhapur and Kaira (in Gujarat State) markets. The leaves used for holding tobacco were generally ‘Tembhurni' leaves usually brought from Madhya Pradesh. The length of bidis was not uniform and varied according to regional demand. As such the quantity of tobacco required for 1,000 bidis varied between 349.91 and 524.87 gm. (30 and 45 tolas). Packing charges, though small, formed an important element of the cost of production.

The output of bidis manufactured was fairly small during rainy season when labourers were engaged in agricultural operations. It increased after harvest when they had more time at their disposal for bidi-making. The, minimum wages per 1,000 bidis were fixed at Rs. 1.62 in municipal areas and Rs. 1.37 in non-municipal areas. The work did not involve special skill and as such there was a keen competition among the workers. It was observed that the rate of wages offered was low. Fifteen factories employed 3,597 workers in 1960.

Some of the factories had branches in Bhandara district and in the neighbouring districts of Vidarbha and Madhya Pradesh. .they collected quite a large number of bidis from the feeder factories and the annual turnover of these factories was considerably large. The bidis were marketed all over Maharashtra as well as in other surrounding States.

The permanent staff of these factories very manager, accountant, cashier, bidi checkers or Tundoorwalas.(Persons in charge of baking bidis in Tundoor, a structures specially made of bricks.)

Manufacture of Pipes and Poles

One unit manufacturing R C. C. pipes and poles was located at Kanhan. The concern was established in 1938 and worked perennially. The fixed capital of the unit stood at Rs. 7,87,765 of which Rs. 4,40,034 were accounted for by the cost of plant and machinery. The working capital as reported by the unit amounted to Rs. 12,86,157. The raw materials used for the production of R C. C. pipes and poles included cement, steel, metal and sand. While cement and steel were available according to the quota allotted, metal and sand were purchased locally. The pipes were manufactured by the spun process.

The following figures give the quantities of the various raw materials consumed during 1959:

 

Raw materials

Quantity

Value
(in rupees)
1.
Cement
1,987.296
Metric tons.
2,34,732
2.
Steel
804.672
Metric tons.
5,90,202
3.
Metal
3,138.380
Metric tons.
58,284
4.
Sand
3,195.136
Metric tons.
12,647
During 1959, the factory consumed 1,15,120 units of electricity which was primarily used as fuel. The factory had to pay Rs. 14,390 for consumption of electricity. The following statement lists different products and their prices in 1960 :
 
Name of the product
(1)

Unit

(2)

Quantity

(3)

Value
(in rupees)
(4)
1.
H. S. Shells Rft.
6,060
4,65,121
2.
H. S. Pipes Rft.
2,480
3.
Hume Pipes Rft.
1,10,100
12,50,968
4.
Poles each
105
18,375
 
The market for the products was mainly local though it also extended to the neighbouring districts of Vidarbha and, Madhya Pradesh. The industry did not work to its, full capacity. During 1959, it employed 133 workers who were paid Rs. 1,39,757 as, wages and salaries. During the same year, there were 25 persons other than workers who received Rs. 66,038 as salaries. The money value of other benefits and privileges allowed, to them amounted to Rs. 27,753.
 
Soap Manufacturing

There were 30 factories in Nagpur district which were engaged in the manufacture of soap. All the factories were non-mechanised and displayed considerable variations in their manufacturing activity. Of these, 19 produced between 50.802 and 203.210 metric tons (50 and 200 tons) of soap annually and the rest about 20.321 metric tons (20 tons) each. Most of the factories were located in Nagpur City.

Key statistics relating to 4 factories in Nagpur district (1958).*

(1)
Number of factories
4
(2)
Number of workers 53
(3)
Total Capital (Rs.) 1,57,000
(4) Fixed Capital (Rs.) 1,20,000
(5) Installed Capacity (Metric tons) 802.644 (790 tons).
(6) Production (Metric tons) 524.282 (516 tons).

* Source: Area Survey Report, Nagpur District

Average investment per factory amounted to Rs. 39300. The ratio of fixed capital per worker also varied considerably. One factory reported Rs. 1,250 per worker as its fixed capital as against Rs. 333 reported by another. The factories in the district utilised on an average 75 per cent of their installed capacity. Because of non-availability of raw materials and the extent of demand for their products, their utilization of installed capacity differed significantly. The total production of washing soap, in Nagpur district, amounted to 1164.336 metric tons (1,146 tons) in 1958 (excluding the production of cottage units) of which approximately 10 per cent was exported outside the district.

The raw materials used comprised oil (cocoanut, cotton seed, mahua and groundnut), sodium silicate, rosin, colour and perfumes. The proportion in which the oils were used was decided according to the standard of the finished product. The factories did not use cocoanut oil in the desired proportion because it costs more than other varieties of oil. Instead, a higher proportion of sodium silicate was used. This affected the quality of the product.

The products of these factories generally catered to the demand from low income groups because of their lower prices. The average price of a cake and a bar of local soap was 25 paise and 75 paise, respectively, while the prices of imported cakes and bars of quality soap stood at 39 paise and Rs. 1.37, respectively. The imported varieties were priced higher on account of their superior quality and higher transport costs. By using sodium silicate in a smaller proportion the quality of soap can be improved. This, in turn, would create a stable demand for the local varieties.

One of the reporting factories, located at Nagpur, was established in 1947 and worked for 280 days in 1959. The fixed capital of the factory was Rs. 27,000 and the working capital was Rs. 50,000. The following raw materials were consumed during the year 1959: —

Raw Material

(1)

Quantity

(2)

Value in Rs.

(3)

1.
Vegetable oils
85.348
Metric tons
1,12,728
2.
Caustic Soda
15.241
Metric tons
10,395
3.
Sodium Silicate
762.036
kg.
315
4.
Rosin
4.064
Metric tons
3,388

The raw materials required were purchased locally. The factory faced difficulties in obtaining necessary raw materials required to ensure steady and continuous production. The total production in the year was 135.135 metric tons (133 tons) of washing soap valued at Rs. 1,99,229. The products also found market in the adjoining districts. The factory employed 9 per-sons and paid them Rs. 8,500 annually as wages and salaries.

 
Sodium Silicate Manufacturing

The demand for sodium silicate from soap and textile industries has encouraged the development of this ancillary industry. One small-scale factory manufacturing sodium silicate was located at Kamptee. The soap industry alone consumed as much as 70 per cent of its annual production whereas the remaining 30 per cent was utilised by the textile industry in Vidarbha region. The aggregate demand of the soap industry was of the order of 975.360 metric tons- (960 tons) while that of the textile industry stood at- 396.240 metric tons (390 tons] approximately, in 1958.

Raw materials consumed by the concern included soda ash, silica and coal. Of these soda ash and silica were imported from outside the district whereas coal was available locally. The factory could not obtain adequate quantity of soda ash on reasonable terms.

Its average investment and value of output per worker employed amounted to Rs. 5,000 and Rs. 13,200, respectively, in 1958. It used 80 per cent of its installed capacity in 1958. Not only the demand from the existing sources was expanding, but also additional demand from cardboard and paper industries was anticipated. The industry needed adequate supply of soda ash to enable it to exploit fully the potential demand. The availability of quartz found in the area in the form of silica sand may possibly bring down the cost of production of the industry.

Steel Furniture

Two small-scale factories manufacturing steel furniture were located in the city of Nagpur. The Government Central Workshop at Nagpur also manufactured steel furniture on a very small-scale. The products of the factories comprised hospital beds, folding beds, cabinets, almirahs, lockers, trollies, chairs, screens, wash-basins and stands. The following statement (Source : Area Survey Report, Nagpur District.) gives the key statistics concerning the two factories (1958).

Items

(1)

 

(2)

1.
Capital Investment
Rs.
78,000
(a)
Fixed capital
Rs.
50,000
(b)
Working capital
Rs.
28,000
2.
Installed Capacity
Rs.
6,00,000
3.
Production
Rs.
1,50,000
4.
Number of workers employed
Rs.
34,000

The Government and private offices, hospitals and business establishmnets of various kinds primarily constitute the demand for steel furniture. To some extent, these products are also in demand by individual families, their standard of living and ability to pay being the most influential factors in determining the extent of their demand. Various schemes of the State Government for expansion, improvement and setting up of new hospitals, dispensaries and sanatoria, together with the demand from Central and State Public Works Departments, will go a long way in stepping up the demand for steel furniture.

The two existing factories faced competition from the products of the reputed large-scale factories at Bombay and Calcutta. Imported products were superior in craftsmanship, durability and finish. The local products were cheaper, the price difference for various items varying between 16 and 41 per cent. The low priced wooden furniture offered stiff competition to the local steel furniture. No intermediaries were appointed by the factories for the sale of their products. The distribution of their products was confined to Nagpur and the neighbouring districts of Raipur, Jubbulpore and Bilaspur in Madhya Pradesh.

The annual requirements of the local factories in 1958 amounted to 406.400 metric tons (400 tons) of steel to work to full capacity on single shift. However they actually received 101.605 and 132.086 metric tons (100 and 130 tons) in 1957 and 1958, respectively. Thus they were more or less compelled to purchase steel in the open market at a high price. The inadequacy of quota of steel allotted to them forced these factories to work considerably below their normal capacity.

Roofing Title

There were eight registered factories manufacturing tiles (Mangalore and Allahbad types) in the district. They employed 223 workers. These factories were partly mechanised. Their products were more durable due to lesser lime content in tiles. The factories worked seasonally, their activity being restricted mainly to the months from November to June. Two reporting concerns (one of them located at Umrer) manufactured both bricks and tiles. The factory at Kutti was established in 1941 and that at Umrer in 1947. They operated seasonally, their working season coinciding more or less with the somewhat slack rabi season in agricultural operations. Kharif crops were more important than the rabi crops in the district. Hence part of agricultural labour employed in kharif season tried to seek employment in bricks and tile manufacturing during the rabi season..

The fixed capital of the two reporting establishments was Rs. 26,850. The major item in the capital structure was the value of land and buildings. The value of machinery, however, did not exceed Rs. 500. It consisted of kilns of different sizes for baking tiles and bricks, sieves, various types of wooden moulds for making bricks and other simple implements like kudal, phavade and ghamele.

The raw materials used, were suitable red earth, clay, half-burnt charcoal, coal-dust and other types of burning waste and horse-dung. On an average the value of raw materials consumed by the factories was in the neighbourhood of Rs. 4,500.

The factories produced tiles of two kinds viz., one cylindrical and the other triangular. Clay, horse-dung and kiln ashes are mixed in water for making tiles. Then cylindrical and triangular tiles are made with the help of potter's wheel and wooden mould. They are then dried and baked in the kilns. Red or black earth is at first sieved and the stones are removed. The kiln ash is mixed with it and then moistened. The mixture is afterwards pounded and turned into balls large enough to make a brick. Bricks are made finally from this mixture with the help of wooden mould. They are then dried and baked in kilns, the process of baking lasting for about a fortnight.

The labour force of the two reporting concerns comprised 24 men, 12 women and two supervisors. The annual wage bill came to Rs. 6,736. The total employment in the eight registered factories was 223. The total sale of the two reporting factories amounted to Rs. 15,000.

The sale price of Mangalore tiles manufactured locally stood at Rs. 200 per 1,000, while that of imported tiles (mainly from Bagra in Madhya Pradesh) ranged between Rs. 215 and Rs. 225 per thousand. On account of lower prices and more durable quality, the local products did not face competition from the imported ones in urban areas. In the rural area, the products of the cottage industry, were preferred as they were available at a lower price.

One of the factories located at Umrer was established in 1956. It manufactured only Mangalore tiles. The fixed capital of the unit stood at Rs. 58,000 and working capital at Rs. 10,000. The machinery included one mill with crushing rollers (valued at Rs. 5,000 in 1956), pressing machines with moulds (including hand press, power press and revolving press), grinding machine for powdering the clay, saw machine for cutting firewood, and oil-engines.

The number of workers employed during the season was 45 of which only two were permanent. The engine driver and the furnace attendant were paid Rs. 100 and Rs. 60 per month, respectively. The wages paid to women workers ranged between Re. 0.75 and Rs. 1.12 per day and those of men workers between Rs. 1.50 and Rs. 2.25 per day. The working day comprised eight hours and the workers were paid on weekly basis. Tiles were sorted into 3 classes on the basis of their quality and correspondingly their sale price varied as shown below : —

1.
First grade
Rs. 24 to Rs. 28 per 100 tiles.
2.
Second grade
Rs. 15 to Rs. 18 per 100 tiles.
3.
Third grade
Rs. 8 per 100 tiles.

Bicycle Parts and Accessories

Nagpur market supplies bicycle parts and accessories to the customers in Nagpur, Amravati, Bhandara, Akola and Wardha districts. There was one unit located at Nagpur, which was engaged in the manufacture of spare parts for bicycles. The products included items such as frames, handles, mud-guards, etc. It assembled about 5,000 bicycles.

The factory was granted a quota of 385.064 metric tons (379 tons) of steel in 1956-57. But as it was reduced to 133.096 metric tons (131 tons) in 1958-59, it could not work to its full capacity in the same year. The comparative wholesale prices (Source: Area Survey Report of Nagpur and Bhandara Districts.) of certain selected items are given below : —

Item
Unit
Nagpur
Western Region
Northen Region
1
2
3
4
5
Rs
Rs
Rs
Chain-wheel Set 6.00 7.50 6.50
Carrier Doz 18.00 25.00 27.00
Chain-cover Doz 11.00 15.00 13.30
Stand Doz 21.75 24.00 27.00

The value of spare parts produced by the factory every year was around Rs. 5.5 lakhs. In spite of keen competition faced from the products coming from Delhi and Bombay markets, it was able to market all its products. Its lower prices enabled the factory to withstand such competition. The demand prospects for the industry appeared bright. If the factory would undertake the manufacture of such additional items as lamp brackets, bracket sets and hubs, it would be able to meet to a considerable extent the demand emanating from normal replacement requirement within the district as well as the orders for spare parts placed by dealers and assembling units in Vidarbha region.

 
Fruit Preservation and Canning

Nagpur oranges are famous throughout the country for their excellent quality. Fruit preservation and canning is a resource-oriented industry localised in Nagpur. It avails itself of the orange crop in the Nagpur district. The industry comprised one large-scale factory, one mechanised small-scale factory and 19 cottage units. The large-scale factory was engaged in canning of fruits and vegetables. It also manufactured orange concentrates and orange segments, orange oil, juice, squashes and syrups. The other factories manufactured squashes, syrups, ice and also undertook canning and bottling of vegetables, fruits, and their juices, and preservation of perishable commodities like table and seed potato in artificially cooled chambers.

Three of the four reporting concerns worked perennially, their working days ranged between 264 and 299 while the other one worked seasonally. All the three concerns were established after 1947.

The fixed capital of the four reporting concerns was Rs. 26,69,430 and their working capital was Rs. 1,41,131. The value of plant and machinery of the two concerns amounted to Rs. 5,02,345. The machinery consisted of Frick and Duglous compressors, electric motors and other power-driven machines.

Electric power was used as fuel by all the units. The value of electricity consumed during 1960 was Rs. 1,10,534. The raw materials used included ammonia, potassium, calcium chloride, common salt, ice, fruits and vegetables. The value of raw materials used by the reporting concerns during 1960 was Rs. 10,41,379. The total consumption of oranges by the existing factories was 1,828.900 metric tons (1,800 tons). This, however, constituted only 2.5 per cent of the total annual yield of oranges in Nagpur district. The main difficulty was encountered in obtaining adequate fruits other than, oranges for processing. Three concerns manufactured products worth Rs. 22,35,209 in one year. The total sale in 1958, of squashes and syrups amounted to 500 cases (each consisting of 12 bottles) equivalent to 50.802 metric tons (50 tons).

The small-scale factories distributed about 70 per cent of their products over an area of about 804.67 km. (500 miles) around Nagpur city (consisting of the eastern districts of Madhya Pradesh and Sambalpur and Rourkela in Orissa). The remaining 30 per cent were marketed in Vidarbha Region. The cottage units catered to the needs of local markets in Nagpur district. The large-scale factory sold its products throughout Maharashtra State. The various factories depended for their sales on different segments of the market and hence did not suffer much from the inter-state competition. The small-scale factories supplied about 63 per cent of the total sales of 3,500 cases of squash in Nagpur district. Their prices were lower than those of the imported brands.

 
 
The four reporting factories employed 369 persons (including 63 women), the individual strength varying between 13 and 252. They were paid Rs. 88,720 by way of wages and salaries during one year. The existing factories did not work up to their maximum capacity due to restricted availability of graded fruits (as the grading of oranges was confined to the regulated markets) and the lack of adequate storage facilities. The small factories purchased glass bottles from time to time on a small-scale at the prevailing retail prices. This, in turn, added considerably to the cost of production of these factories.

Drugs and Pharmaceuticals

There was only one factory in the district engaged in manufacturing drugs and pharmaceuticals. It was located at Nagpur. The factory established in 1948 worked throughout the year. Though the factory specialized in preparing Ayurvedic medicines, it made considerable use of power-driven machinery. Its products were marketed even outside the State.

The fixed capital of the concern amounted to Rs. 5,88,724, which included Rs. 35,238 by way of value of plant and machinery. The working capital stood at Rs. 1,88,987. The plant comprised various machines such as disintegrator, sieving and straining unit, end runner mill, mass roller machine, drying oven, tablet coating pan, monoblock pumping set, electric sealing machine, mill making machine, bottle filling machine, mechanical stirrer, ball mill machine and motors. All the machines, were power-driven. The total consumption of electricity during 1959 was 17,400 K.W.H. The electricity bill amounted to Rs. 4,500. In addition, coke and firewood were also used as fuel. The quantity of coke and firewood used during 1959 was 177.809 and 24.385 metric tons (175 and 24 tons) valued at Rs. 7,956 and Rs. 544, respectively

The following statement gives the principal raw materials used during the year 1959. While gur and sugar were locally available, dry fruits, camphor and mercury were imported from outside the district: —

Raw Material

(1)

Quantity

Value
(in Rs.)

(4)

Kg.
(2)

Lbs.
(3)

Gur
6,62,722.205
14,61,060
49,329
Sugar
18,669.764
41,160
24,288
Dry fruits
5,929.328
13,072
13,072
Camphor
167.376
369
1,830
Mercury
68.946
152
2,200
 

Though the concern was well-equipped to manufacture asavas and arishtas, arkas, bhasma and churna, rasa and rasayana and other patent medicines, it did not undertake the productionof all these medicines. The reason was the inadequacy of the raw materials available and its sub-standard quality. This prevented the factory from working to its full capacity.

The following statement gives the relevant details regarding the products of the firm together with their values for the year 1959: —

Product

(1)

Quantity

Value
(in Rs.)

(4)

(in kg.)
(2)

(in lbs.)
(3)

Drakshasava
25,368.00
56,000
89,600
Ashokarishta
17,395.20
38,400
64,512
Chawanprasha
10,872.00
24,000
72,000
Pranada
9,295.56
20,520
92,340

The market for the products was mainly local. However, its products had a good reputation in inter-state markets. The factory employed 68 workers (including 9 women) whose wage bill amounted to Rs. 61,168 during 1959. In the same year, the rest of the staff comprised 43 persons who received Rs. 56,460 by way of wages and salaries. The money value of other benefits and privileges allowed to the staff accounted for Rs. 9,209.

 
Bone-meal Factory

A bone-meal factory engaged in bone-crushing and preparation of manure was established at Kamptee in 1945. It worked throughout the year. The fixed capital, as reported by the factory, was of the order of Rs. 1,06,500 including the cost of plant and machinery which stood at Rs. 75,000. The working capital of the factory amounted to Rs. 4,50,000.

Electricity and steam coal were used as fuel which in 1959 were valued at Rs. 3,600 and Rs. 10,800 (for 12 wagons), respectively. The raw materials required by the mill included raw bones, hoofs, horns and sinews. The total quantity of raw materials used in 1959 amounted to 2,032 metric tons valued at Rs. 5,00,000. These raw materials were purchased from the neighbouring districts of Vidarbha and Madhya Pradesh regions.

The main products of the factory comprised manures, fertilizers and crushed bones. The following statement reveals the turnover of the various products manufactured during 1959: —

Product
Quantity
Value (in Rs.)
Metric tons
Tons
Crushed bones 1,422.50 1,400 4,20,000
Bone grist      
Hoof and horn meal 406.42 400 1,40,000
Manure of bones and sinews      
Bone-meal fertilizers 203.21 200 50,000

The factory did not work to its full capacity. A part of the product, as reported by the factory, was exported to America and a few European countries. The factory faced difficulty in obtaining the requisite quantity of steam coal and corrugated iron sheets.

The factory employed 20 men workers and an equal number of women workers. The men workers were paid Rs. 10,140 by way of wages in 1959, and the women workers received Rs. 3,360. Five persona doing administrative and supervisory work were paid Rs. 3,000.

 

The machinery and tools consisted of rotary compact disintegrator,, automatic rotary sieve, vertical boiler, cylindrical digester, baskets, axes, tools and weighing scales. The approximate price of these machines was placed at Rs. 32,000.

Process

The bones are obtained in a wet condition when collected from slaughter-houses and beef packers and in dry condition from villages. If the quantity of marrow is negligible, the wet bones are allowed to age open in the sun. However, 10 per cent of recoverable fat, which can be sold at a good price, is found only in healthy cattle bones. Such bones are broken into smaller pieces with a hacking axe and are feeded to the digester having a capacity of 0.508 metric ton (half a ton) at a time. Steam is started till a pressure of about 4.536 to 9.072 kg. (10 1b. to 20 1b.) per square inch (6.451 cm.2) is reached and the valve is then adjusted to maintain that pressure for about half an hour or so. All the greases in the bones get digested during this time. After that the steam is stopped and the water mixed with grease is allowed to flow in a settling tank, where the floating grease is skimmed o2 (by addition of hydrochloric acid, if necessary), filtered and stored for sale. This oil is useful to tanners as it possesses wonderful carrying and fatliquering properties on leather. The remaining bones are dried in the sun along with other dry bones and are taken up for crushing in exportable sizes. The dry bones are first broken into pieces with an axe, small enough to feed into a crusher and are crushed with 25.4 mm. to 38.1 mm. (1" to 1 ½") screen and are sieved in the rotating cylindrical sieving machine which separates the bones into different sizes of 4.7625 mm., .12.7 mm., 15.875 mm., 19.05 mm., 22.225 mm. (3/16",1 ½ ", 5/8 ", ¾ " and 7/8"). Larger sizes are either sent for recrushing or for digestion for bone-meal.

The digester is charged with 0.508 metric ton (half a ton) of bones at a time. It is a cylindrical tank placed horizontally on the ground with a leakproof detachable door and firm bolts at the rim. The body is thick enough to withstand a steam pressure of 45.36 kg. (100 lbs.), per square inch (6.451 cm2). Inside a perforated wooden or mild steel platform is fixed at the base, to allow the condensed' water and greases from the bones to separate and flow down through the bottom outlet to the settling tank before opening the door after the digestions. The bones are digested at a constant pressure of 36.28 kg. (80 lbs.) per square inch (6.451 cm.2) for one and a half to two hours when the bones get completely soft. The steam is then allowed to escape through the top elevator valve and the condensed water is sent to the settling tank for recovering the marrow or is dumped into a pit to make compost manure which can be sold readily to the farmers. The digested bones are thoroughly dried in the open air and are pulverized with the beater-type of crusher into a fine powder, weighed and packed into bags for sale. Very often the meal is mixed in different proportions with synthetic fertilizers and soil conditioners and sold for different 'uses as manure. There are various other uses of bone-meal, the most valuable being as cattle feed to increase the milk yield and also as a poultry food.

There were six small-scale and 15 cottage factories engaged in manufacturing casings and cappings in Nagpur city. Two small-scale factories were mechanised while others were hand-operated. Wooden casings and cappings are used for electrical fittings and installations in household and industrial establishments.

Wooden Casings and Cappings

Three factories in Nagpur had an aggregate fixed investment of Rs. 23,000. Their annual production amounted to 39,624 running metres (130,000 ft.) of casings and cappings in 1958. These units employed 15 workers. The amount of fixed capital per worker in these units varied between Rs. 1,200 and Rs. 2,500. Similarly, the production per worker varied between 2,043.5 and 3,048.0 running metres (6,700 and 10,000 running feet). One of the reporting mechanised concerns had a fixed capital of Rs. 14,000 and a working capital of Rs. 5.000 in 1960. It was situated in rented premises carrying a rent of Rs. 100 per month. It worked perennially, the actual number of working days being 280 in 1960. It employed 13 men workers and . paid them Rs. 12.400 annually by way of wages, salaries and other benefits-Electricity was used as fuel and 3,288 K.W.H. of electricity was consumed in a year.

The machinery of the unit included electrically driven handsaw machine, shaft and pulleys, circular saw, round block making machine, grooving machine, drilling machine and grinder. The total cost of plant, machinery, tools and other equipment stood at Rs. 6,000.

The main raw material required for the industry is teak wood slightly soft and one of direction grain. Teak wood is abundantly available in Nagpur and in the nearby areas. In 1960, one of the concerns consumed 226-535 cubic metres (8,000 cubic feet) of teak wood valued at Rs. 50,000.

Wooden Shuttles and Bobbins

The products of the concern included electric casings, battens, boards and blocks, all valued at Rs. 54,500 during 1960. The product catered to the local demand since there were no imports into or exports from the area. Cottage workers engaged in this industry offered competition to the small-scale factories by reducing their prices to the extent of 25 to 40 per cent.

There was only one factory in Nagpur manufacturing primarily wooden shuttles and bobbins. It gave sub-contracts to about 10 cottage factories in Nagpur City for semi-finished wooden shuttle's to he used in handlooms. The factory worked on double shift and engaged lathes for its manufacturing activities. Wooden shuttles are used by handloom weavers and every loom requires three shuttles per annum. There is scope for expansion of the industry provided it undertakes the production of shuttles for powerlooms. Each powerloom, on an average, requires four shuttles per year. With two cotton textile mills having 3,012 looms, Nagpur City alone will require 12,048 shuttles per year.

The raw materials mainly include the sheesham wood of semi-hard varieties, tongs and eye-pieces. White sheesham wood was available locally whereas other materials were purchased from importers in Bombay. About 50 per cent of its products were distributed in Bombay, Indore and Bangalore. The factory lacked adequate finance needed for manufacturing metal- tongs and for purchasing wood in bulk during the monsoon when it is cheaper than during the rest of the year.

 
PICTURE FRAMES MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

In 1958 there were 15 small-scale and 150 cottage factories in the picture frames manufacturing industry. All of them were located in Nagpur city. Cottage factories played a subordinate role in relation to the small-scale factories. Generally they worked as sub-contractors to some small-scale factories. They manufactured picture frames of salai wood of 38.10 mm. to 76.20 mm. ( ½" to 3") width and differing in varieties like plain, marble painted, silver and gold painted. Of the 15 small-scale factories, one was established in 1935, three were established between 1940 and 1950 and six were established between 1950 and 1960. All the reporting factories worked perennially. Their working days varied between 300 and 313.

The fixed capital of the reporting concerns was Rs. 2,78,874 and their working capital amounted to Rs. 5,98,475. The following table gives statistics relating to three small-scale factories in Nagpur city (1958). (Area Survey Report of Nagpur and Bhandara Districts,1962, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India)

 


TABLE No. 8

Unit
Number of Workers
Capital (Rupees in thousands)
Production
 
Fixed
Working
Total
Quantity (bundles 000)
Value
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A
60
15
30
45
60
180
B
70
23
19
42
90
250
C
40
3.7
N.A.
N.A.
45
130
Total
170
41.7
N.A
N.A
195
560


The machinery of the concerns consisted of drill machine, moulding machine, bandsaws, planing-machine, lathe, grinding machine, sharpening machine, spray gun and compressor. The value of the machinery in the different concerns varied between Rs. 6,000 and Rs. 13,000. However, in the case of one establishment it amounted to Rs. 35,000. The ten reporting concerns employed 632 workers, both men and women. They were annually paid Rs. 4,88,105 by way of wages. Power was used as fuel by larger units. Their bill fur consumption of power absorbed Rs. 7,695. The smaller factories used simple type of machinery and hence required lesser fuel.

The raw materials consumed were salai wood planks, litho-phone, carbon black, paints, gum, lemonchrome, spirit, shellac and sign paper. Except litbophorie, everything is locally avail able. The main raw material of the industry was salai wood abundantly available in Nagpur and Bhandara districts. However, its supply being seasonal, it was not available to the units throughout the year at steady prices. The annual consumption of raw materials by the reporting factories was placed at Rs. 9,65,689. The products of the industry were valued approximately at Rs. 17,08,945. They did not face competition from imported goods as the prices of indigenous goods were much lower than those of the imported ' ones. Nonetheless, the products faced some competition from the cottage factories because their products were still cheaper, though inferior in quality.

The industry found it difficult to obtain adequate quantity of colours, chemicals, and such other non-indigenous raw materials. Secondly, salai wood was not available throughout the year at steady prices.

Wood Screws, Wires nails and Panel Pins Industry

There was only one factory located at Nagpur manufacturing wood screws, wire nails and panel pins.

It has an installed capacity of 2,52,000 gross wood screws, 9.144 metric tons (9 tons) panel pins, 1,250 gross door handles and 334 gross tin containers [each with a capacity of 18.18 litres (4 gallons)]. The demand for wood screws, wire nails and panel pins chiefly emanates from the construction of buildings, railway coaches, wagons, ships, furniture-making, photo-frames, packing cases, etc. Demand for the product was increasing almost continuously on account of rapidly expanding construction activities in the area. The sales of wood screws increased by 44 per cent and those of wire nails and panel pins by 23 per cent during 1956-58. The relevant figures (The statement is compiled on the basis of data furnished by the dealers contacted,) are presented below: —
TABLE NO.9

Sales in 1000 gross of wood screws
Sales of wire nails and panel pins
Dealers
1956
1957
1958
1956
1957
1958
Metric tons
Tons
Metric tons
Tons
Metric tons
Tons
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
A
13
15
19
20.321
20
22.353
22
25.401
25
B
31
36
45
23.369
23
25.401
25
28.449
28
C
24
29
35
18.289
18
19.305
19
22.353
22
Total
68
80
99
61.979
61
67.05
66
76.204
75

Nearly 70 per cent of the products were sold locally. The rest was exported to Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. The production was 53.142 gross in 1954. It rose to 1,21,665 gross in 1958. Existence of idle capacity was mainly attributed to the nonavailability of an adequate supply of the chief raw materials

 
COTTAGE INDUSTRIES
 
 

BRICK-MAKING

Just like Pottery, Brick-making was also carried on as a cottage industry at many places. The industry mainly met the day-to-day demand for bricks arising from the construction of new houses and repairs to old ones. Where the manufacturing activity was carried on, on a small-scale, the production mainly catered to the local demand. It was a seasonal occupation practised generally by artisans between October and May. Abundant supply of water facilitated the working of this industry. The raw materials required were earth and ash whereas the items of fuel were coal and wood. The furnaces for baking bricks (locally known as bhattis) were cither rectangular or square in size with a capacity of 50,000 to 75,000 bricks. The length, breadth and height of the rectangular furnace was usually 4.572 metres (15 feet), 3.658 metres (12 feet) and 2.134 metres (7 feet), respectively. The brick with a length, breadth and height of 0.23 metre (9 inches). 0.115 metre (4 1/2 inches), and 0.08 metre (3 inches), respectively required a mould of 0.245 metre (91/2 inches) in length, 0,107 metre (43/4 inches) in breadth and 0.905 metre (3l/2 inches) height, respectively. The process of baking bricks was spread over 15 days. The cost of making 1,000 bricks varied between Rs. 25 and Rs. 27, and their selling price between Rs. 30 and Rs. 35. Mansar, Ramtek, Pavni were the important market places where a large turnover was recorded. Trucks provided the means of transport for carrying bricks to the market places.

Bricks were made with the help of moulds and labourers well experienced in the line were usually hired. They also helped in arranging the bricks into the furnace (this operation is locally known as bharai) and in taking them out (locally known upsai). In a few cases it was observed that the artisans made tiles side by side with their main product, viz., bricks.

Bidi-making

Bidi-making was another cottage industry, next in importance to weaving. It provided. subsidiary source of income to agricultural labourers who were not gainfully employed throughout the year. As it required little or no capital investment and demanded. no special skill, illiterate and unskilled artisans could take to this profession. Besides important bidi-making centres such as Kamptee, Saoner and Nagpur, persons engaged in this calling were scattered in the mofussil area throughout the district.

Generally these workers were employed by contractors who provided them with all the necessary material like tobacco, leaves and thread and asked for bidis in return. The length of the bidis varied and so did the quantity of tobacco. The wages were fixed at Rs. 1.62. per thousand bidis in the municipal areas and Rs. 1.37 per thousand bidis in the non-municipal.These contractors had their feeder factories where they collected bidis from workers and sent them to registered factories. They received agreed commission for their services. The owners of these registered factories gave a fixed quota of necessary raw materials to the middlemen and asked for a fixed number of bidis in return.

In some cases, bidi-making was undertaken by all the working members of a family in their residential premises. In the rainy season, the family busied itself with agricultural operations and the tempo of bidi-manufacturing slowed down. It gathered momentum after the harvest and continued to be brisk till the onset of monsoon.

There were four unions of bidi-workers in the district during the year 1957-58 having total membership of 3,447. Their subscription fees and other receipts amounted to Rs. 5,447 against the expenditure of Rs. 4,681.

 

Brass Utensils Industry

This was one of the major cottage industries of Nagpur ] district. The size of the industry, unitwise, differed considerably. According to 1951 census, there were more than 50 cottage units engaged in this industry and one unit, working on a small-scale, was registered under the Factories Act. Processes carried out in these units were rarely mechanised and generally hand-operated. A major proportion of capital of the small-scale unit was invested in fixed assets.

The dealers in utensils and owners of factories hire artisans on piece-rate basis, the rate varying between Re. 0.87 and Rs. 1.12 per 0.933 kg. (one seer) of brass.(It means when the worker turns out utensils weigheing 0.933 kg.(one seer) he is paid between Re.0.87 and Rs.1.12.) This rate is inclusive of the cost of solder, acid, flux and fuel required for manufacturing process. The daily earnings of a worker varied between Rs. 1.50 and Rs. 2. However, they decreased during the slack season.

Stainless steel utensils offered competition to the brass utensils industry. However, as the imports of stainless steel were restricted in the context of the scarcity of foreign exchange, the prices of the stainless steel utensils were higher. The introduction of glassware, chinaware, plasticware had adversely affected the demand for and consequently the sales of brass utensils. Still, according to the estimates of dealers contacted, the sales of these utensils "amounted to 4,47,890 kg. (12,000 maunds) in Nagpur district.

The moderate prospects for the industry as a whole and the unutilised capacity of the existing units precludes the establishment of new units. However, the industry could be placed on sounder footing through the formation of a co-operative society.

Pottery-making

Pottery-making was one of the important cottage industries of Pot! the district. It was the hereditary calling of the Kumbhars. The chief artisan was helped by other members of his family. The best earthen vessels produced in the district were at Ramtek,Parseoni and Koradi. The pilgrims coming to the Ambala fair purchased the earthen-wares produced at Ramtek. The number of potters in Nagpur district at the end of 1960 was 556.(According to the survey conducted by the Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Government of Maharashtra) The important centres of pottery-making were Narkhed, Saoner, Kalmeshwar and Bhiwapur where a considerable number of Kumbhar families were found to be engaged in this industry.

The tools of a potter consisted of a wodden or an earthen wheel (known as "potter's wheel”), brick-kiln for baking earthen pots and wooden moulds of various shapes and sizes for making clay toys. Red as well as black earth was used for making earthen pots. Red earth is at first mixed with horse-dung and soaked in water for some time before earthen pots are finally produced. The mixture is then kneaded properly and trodden twice. The clay is then given the required form by being pressed on the rotating wheel. The pot is enlarged and strengthened by continued handling, turning and application of fresh mud till it acquires the requisite shape. The pots are then dried and a solution of red chalk and black earth is applied externally. The pots are finally baked in the kiln. Rice husk and cow-dung are spread at the bottom of the kiln and the pots are buried in rows below the husk. The kiln is set fire to and the pots are taken out after the husk and cow-dung turn into ashes.

The manufacturing activity is usually in full swing during the summer season, when the labourers are not busy with agricultural operations and the demand also shows an upward trend. During the rainy season, the potters are engaged in making toys, dolls and idols for the festival days.

The earth required in the prepartion of the pots was brought from the neighbouring villages. The price of one cart-load of black earth was one rupee and that of red earth Rs. 1.50. Baking of earthenware valued at Rs. 25 required fuel worth Rs. 8 to Rs. 10 and earth worth Rs. 3 (two cart-loads). A family of eight persons produced during one week earthen pots valued at Rs. 40 for which it consumed earth and fuel worth Rs. 25. Thus the average earnings of a worker per week amounted to Rs. 3 approximately.

The markets for these products, which included ghagars, deras and khujas and small-sized madkis was restricted mainly to the district. The demand came from the poorer sections of the society and hence products fetched relatively low prices, in some cases in the mofussil area, the earthen vessels were directly exchanged for grains.

The markets at the various taluka places and commercial centres provided an opportunity for the sale of these articles which could not be carried to distant places as they were exposed to breakage in transit.

Weaving and Dyeing

Weaving was the most important cottage industry of Nagpur district which provided employment to a considerable number of people in rural areas. It was a typical industry giving employment to the landless labourers, having no other means of subsistence. This industry provides a welcome relief to the increasing pressure of population on land and to the hard-pressed people in mofussil area who cannot follow any other profession due to illiteracy and paucity of funds. The weavers, mainly coming from the Koshti community, specialized in the weaving of silk-bordered cloth. As early as 1901, the population of Koshtis was 44,020 which represented six per cent of the total population of the district.

Some of the weavers were reluctant to give up their looms which was tantamount to losing their independence. They were content with lower incomes. Dhapewada (in Nagpur tahsil), Khapa (in Ramtek tahsil) and Nagpur were famous for sarees made of dyed yarn. Umrer was renowned for dhotis and uparane (shoulder-cloth) with jari-border. Bina and Mouda were well-known for good cotton cloth whereas Kalmeshwar specialised in cotton sarees. In the first decade of this century, the Garpagans whose hereditary profession was to protect crops from hail-storm, earned their livelihood by making coarse newar cloth used for bedding. They resided chiefly in large towns and at Bela in Umrer tahsil. The Rangaris, who dyed the cotton yarn for the coloured cloth used to make jazams (carpets) and razais (Quilts) at Patansaongi, Saoner, Sawargaon, Narkhed and Bhiwapur. Hemp-matting was woven by the Bhamtas at Kamptee, Nagpur and Gauri (in Ramtek tahsil). They also made net hags for holding cotton in the busy season. The Bhamtas at Nagpur and Makardhokra used to make thick screens (tarats) and ropes of san-hemp (flax).

Though there were some important weaving centres like Mouda, Umrer and Khapa, weavers in large number of villages were found to carry on their business with the help of members of their families. Outside labour was rarely employed. Rut the earnings of families were hardly sufficient to meet their hare necessities of life. While women did the work of warping, drawing in, denting and winding of yarn, men devoted themselves exclusively to weaving. In some cases, the commission agents supplied weavers with yarn and they did weaving for which they were poorly paid.

According to 1951 Census, there were 43,483 handlooms in Nagpur district, supporting 2,17,500 weavers (Momins and Koshtis). Due to spread of the co-operative movement, weavers were deriving numerous benefits. A considerable improvement was seen in their standard of living.

Dyeing was a cottage industry complementary to weaving and was followed as a profession by a considerable number of people. Thev used indigenous colours and their methods of dyeing were crude. Almost all the processes were executed by band labour. While Rangaris specialized in the dveing of cotton yarn for coloured cloth, the Patwis (braiders) devoted themselves to dyeing silk. Their incomes varied according to the seasons, but the standard of living in general was poor.

Leather-working

Leather-workers (Chambhars, Mochis) are found in all towns and in most of the large villages. Though the Chambhar holds a very low position in the social scale, he has always held an important position as a craftsman. He is still one of the bene ficiaries of the baluta system of village economy. After the introduction of the machine-made leather goods, which are finer and superior in quality, this cottage industry has suffered considerably. The large-scale leather factories at Kanpur, Lucknow, Calcutta and Madras have almost captured the market for leather goods. Consequently the economic position of the leather workers has been seriously affected.

The industry provides a source of livelihood to 15,318 (As per 1961 Census, which includes, in this category leather-cutters,wasters and sewers (except gloves and garments) and related workers, the figure given for shoe-makers and shoe-repairers is 14,740.) persons in the district. Almost all the leather workers in Nagpur district are hereditary Chambhars and Mochis.

Main centres of this industry are at Nagpur, Umrer, Ramtek, Kamptee, Kanhan, Saoner, Khapa, Katol, Kalmeshwar and Narkhed.

Tanned leather or rubber for soles, chrome leather for uppers, skins, hides, nails, polish, rings and buttons constitute the raw materials for a leather worker. The leather for soles is purchased by the artisans at Nagpur. Chrome leather is brought from Kanpur, Lucknow and Madras.

The tools and equipment of a Chambhar consist of ari (awl), rapi (knife), airan (anvil), kasti (hammer), palashi, pakkad,. wooden blocks, etc. The entire set of tools costs about Rs. 70, Some of the well-to-do artisans own a sewing machine costing about Rs. 400.

Most of the leather-working establishments are family concerns engaging the services of members of the family. In. towns, however, bigger artisans engage workers either on daily wages or on piece-rates, Average earnings of an artisan range between Rs. 2 and Rs. 4 per day. A highly skilled artisan can earn about Rs. 5 per day.

Even though most of the artisans work throughout the year, the rainy season is a period of dull business. Some of the artisans find employment in agriculture during the rainy season and at the time of harvesting.

The leather workers in this district make chappals, vahana, shoes, slippers, mots, pakhals, leather bags, etc. The price of a pair of chappals approximates Rs. 4, that of vahana Rs. 3.50, of shoes Rs. 14, of slippers Rs. 11, of mot Rs. 100, and of leather bag Rs. 10. All these articles find a local market. Since the development of co-operative societies, the sale side of the business has been considerably eased for the artisans. The societies sell the products of the members.

In 1959, there were 10 co-operative societies of leather workers in this district. The Nagpur District Leather Industrial Co-operative Society, Ltd., which was established in 1945 is the most prominent society. The co-operative societies in the district commanded a membership of 272 and had working capital of Rs. 1,96,536 in 1959. Up to the end of August 1959, they had secured loans to the tune of Rs. 1,18,750 from the Government and the co-operative banks.

Blacksmithy is a hereditary occupation of the Lohars and Panchals who make and repair agricultural implements, building material, etc. This occupation was an integral part of the rural economy from ancient times. The Lohar was formerly a member of the class of balutedars (The Baluta system, which formed part of the socio-economic structure of rural India,meant the payment of wages in kind for the services rendered by the villege artisans The system, is however ,fast declining) This industry provides employment to 15,144 (As per 1961 Census, which includes in the category Blacksmiths, Hammersmiths and Forgemen.) persons in this district. The artisans at Nagpur and Kamptce have specialised in the manufacture of buckets, pans, chains and units of measure, etc.

The industry is mainly located at Nagpur, Kamptee, Katol, Saoner, Khapa, Umrer and Ramtek. With the growth of small-scale industries around Nagpur, Kamptee and Kanhan, the local blacksmiths have been finding favourable demand for their manufactures. Services of the blacksmiths are highly in demand for the preparation of accessories, spare parts, repairs, fixtures, etc.

The materials used by a blacksmith comprise iron-sheets with gauge varying from 10 to 30, round bars and. flat bars. Old tins and scrap materials are used for repair works.

The blacksmiths usually own their establishments. The capital invested by an individual blacksmith ranges from Rs. 300 to Rs. 500. The tools and equipment of a blacksmith consist of anvil, furnace,, bellows,, sledge hammers, sandashi, files and chisels. Most of the tools are of a rough and primitive nature.

The Block Development authorities impart training in the use of improved tools and refined methods of working at training centres at convenient places in the district.

Blacksmiths in this district make articles such as, axes, spades, furrows, sickles, hoes, axles of carts, cart wheels, frying pans, flat pans,, sieves, prongs, nails, etc. All these articles command a local market. There is always a ready demand. Very often the blacksmiths get orders from the agriculturists who sometimes give metal sheets or bars required for making the articles. In such cases the blacksmiths get Only the wages for their services.

Daily gross earnings of a blacksmith range between Rs. 5 and Rs. 8. An employed worker gets about Rs. 3 per day. Earnings in the urban areas are far better than those in the rural tracts.

Generally, a skilled blacksmith seldom encounters any threat of unemployment. It is only rarely that he may face casual unemployment due to irregular supply of iron sheets and bars.

The artisans have begun to realise the importance of forming co-operative societies. In 1959, there were 5 co-operative societies of blacksmiths and carpenters in the district. The co-operatives had a membership of 106, share capital amounting to Rs. 4,413 and working capital Rs. 6,310. The co-operative movement has been extending financial as well as technical assistance to the artisans.

The economic conditions of the artisans have shown signs of improvement with spread of the co-operative movement among the artisans in this cottage industry.

 

Carpentry

Carpenter was an important member of the baluta system which formed an integral part of the rural economy for centuries. Under the baluta system, he was paid in kind, i.e., in terms of a certain quota of food-grains, vegetables, etc., for rendering the essential services to the cultivators. These artisans, known as sutars, who were hereditary professionals, were engaged in the making of agricultural implements, building materials and furniture.

The occupation has retained its place in the economy in spite of far-reaching changes in the socio-economic structure. In fact, with the increased pace of building activities, the services of the carpenters are highly in demand. They are scattered all over the district, and every village has its own carpenters. The most important centres of the industry are Saoner, Kalineshwar, Nar-khed, Katol, Nagpur, Umrer, Kuhi,. Bori, Kondali and Kalamb. Nagpur is the biggest centre of the furniture-making industry in Vidarbha. Carpenters in Nagpur are skilled in wood carvings of excellent designs and artistic patterns. The gateway of the Bhosle's palace at Nagpur and the Rukmini temple which exhibit beautiful carvings and linear decorations bear an eloquent testimony to the Nagpur carpenters' dexterity.

The Gondawana forests which extend over parts of this district produce quite a good quality of timber. Besides, the Chanda forests, which are not far off from Nagpur, are very rich in teak of good quality. The famous Chanda teak, is assembled at and distributed from Nagpur.

This fact has encouraged the development of the furniture-making industry in Nagpur rather than at any other place.

For making packing cases for oranges and photo-frames,(Photo-frame making is also one of the major occupations in Nagpur city. There are about 150 establishments engaged in this occupation at Nagpur.) the carpenters use salai wood, a peculiar specie of the Satpuda forest ranges.

The cost of teakwood varies from Rs. 12 to Rs. 20 per 0.0.28 cubic metre (per cubic foot) depending upon the quality ; nails cost Rs. 2.50 per kilogram and polish Rs. 4 per bottle.

The Sutar's tools comprise (their prices given in brackets) wasala (Rs. 10), patasi (Rs. 5), ari (Rs. 10), girmit (Rs. 5), whet stone (Rs. 2), karwat (Rs. 7), natoda (Rs. 2), gunya, chhani (chisels), randha, screw-drivers, pakad, etc. The entire set costs about Rs. 150.

Investment by the carpenter is mainly confined to tools and a certain quantity of teakwood, salai wood, babhul wood, etc. As the quantity of wood with individual carpenters varies, the capital value of it cannot be exactly found out.

The carpenters mainly prepare furniture, agricultural implements such as plough, hoe, coultered drills (tiphan), phawade and bullock-cart. Building construction provides them with gainful employment. Besides, their services are availed of for repairing
these articles.

The carpenters find a demand for their articles in the local areas. The furniture manufacturers at Nagpur export furniture to the nearabout towns.

The daily earnings of an artisan in the urban area range from Rs. 4 to Rs. 7 per day. In rural areas a sutar earns between Rs. 3 and Rs. 4 per day.

There is a carpentry Training Centre at Katol where the artisans are imparted training in the use of improved methods of carpentry. Similar facilities are provided by the Block Development authorities at Saoner, Kuhi and Mouda. The Government extends financial assistance to the carpenters through their co-operatives.

Bamboo-working

Making articles such as chicks, mats, fans and sieves has been the hereditary occupation of Buruds and Mangs. "Their industry is of some importance in Kalmeshwar, and their average income is Rs. 15 a month. Brushes and mats of date-palm leaves and scale-pans are made by Mangs." The Kaikadis who are a nomadic tribe are famous for making baskets from stalks of cotton plants, etc.

The bamboo-working, industry is mainly found at Kalmeshwar, Nagpur, Mohpa, Narkhed, Katol, Kondhali, Ramtek, Umrer and Saoner. The expansion of orange cultivation and the subsequent increase in the demand for baskets and karandis for packing purposes has led to an increase in the demand for the services of these artisans and their products. In the orange seasons, viz., October, November, April and May, lakhs of karandis are exported to all the big cities of India. During the peak of the season hundreds of artisans are busy working over schedule to meet the demand for baskets and karandis.

Bamboo which is the main raw material required for this industry, is obtained from the forests in the district. Bamboo strips and strings are taken out with a sickle. Generally men take out bamboo strips and women make the various articles.

 

Besides karandis and baskets, the Buruds and Mangs make duradi (sieve), rovli, hara, sup (winnowing fan) and tattya (bamboo mat). The cost of producing these articles and their selling prices are given below(Central Provinces District Gazetteers, Nagpur District, by Mr. R. V. Russell, 1908, page 182) :-

Article

(1)

Cost

(2)

Selling price

(3)

Rs. p.
Rs. p.
Sieve (Duradi)
0.44
0.62
Winnowing fan (Sup)
0.30
0.50
Hara
1.00
2.00
Karandi
0.50
0.75

 

All the artisans are found to use very crude and outdated tools. Tools and equipment consist of koyata (sickle),, knife, chisel cutter and wooden blocks. Cost of the set of tools and equipment ranges between Rs. 20 and Rs. 30.

The initial capital investment required by the artisan is small. The earnings of an artisan depend mainly upon his skill. The average daily earnings of an artisan amount to Rs. 1.50. The occupation does not provide them with fulltime employment throughout the year. In the rainy season some of the artisans are required to take recourse to agricultural labour. The economic position of the artisans is miserable. The earnings from the occupation do not allow them even moderate living standards.

Oil-seed Crushing

It was one of the important cottage industries in the past and its importance has not significantly diminished even with the advent of oil-milling industry on a mechanical scale. The oil-men used to cater to the requirements of oil of the entire population. Almost every village had a few telis, who used to follow it as a hereditary occupation. With the mechanisation of the industry, the oil-man found himself a weaker ingredient of the economic structure of the rural as well as the urban areas. Even though the ubiquitous character of the industry is intact, the economic position of the oil-man has been badly affected.

Nagpur district is an oil-seed producing area. The main oilseeds produced are cotton-seed, linseed, sesamum and groundnut. The annual average production of the oil-seeds is normally as follows: groundnut 4,439.920 metric tons. (4,370 tons), sesamum 1,948.688 metric tons (1,918 tons), linseed 7,393.439 metric tons (7,277 tons) and castorseed 66.040 metric tons (65 tons).

Oil-crushing provides employment to many artisans in the district. Almost all the artisans, except a few, are hereditary telis.

The main centres of the industry are Nagpur, Ramtek, Mansar, Saoner, Kondhali, Katol, Patansaongi and Kalmeshwar. Ramtek and Umrer tahsils are famous for linseed-crushing, whereas in Katol tahsil groundnut-crushing is found on a larger scale.The oil-men purchase the oil-seeds usually at the time of harvesting when the prices are lower. Groundnut, linseed, scsamum and castorseed are purchased from the cultivators, while cottonseed is purchased from the ginning factories. The price of groundnut ranges from Rs. 70 to Rs. 90 for 111.973 kg. (palla of three Bengali matinds). The price of cottonseed ranges from Rs. 40 to Rs. 50 per palla.

Telghani constitutes the principal item of the equipment required by the oil-men. At most of. the places the traditional Kolu ghani is used, though a number of progressive oil-men have taken to the modern and improved types, Nutan ghani, Nutan Wardha ghani and Erandol Telghani. The Kolu ghani consists of a wooden mortar(The mortar is called ukhali, and the wooden cylinder is known as lat in Nagpur district.) which holds seed and a wooden cylinder about 1.219 metres (4') high fitted right in the centre of the mortar with a heavy cross-beam on the top in a standing position, one end of which rests about 0.305 metre (a foot) from ground. A semi-circular block of wood is attached to the lower part of the mortar with a piece of wood projecting and forming a right angle with the upper beam at the end near the ground. On this piece of wood a large stone is placed which is connected with the upper beam by means of ropes. As the ropes are tightened and the block rises, the pressure of the cylinder is increased. A blind-folded bullock is yoked to the upper beam. As the bullock goes round the mortar the cylinder revolves and thereby the seeds are crushed. Oil is squeezed out and falls to the bottom of the mortar while the residue forms into a solid mass round the sides of the mortar as oilcake. The cost of a ghani is about Rs. 300 to Rs. 400.

The process of oil-crushing which requires operations such as threshing and cleaning the groundnut, crushing the seeds and taking out the oil and cake is spread over a period of three to four hours. Consequently an oil-man can turn over only three ghanis a day.

The oil contents of groundnut seed range between 30 per cent and 40 per cent, of sesamum between 35 pet cent and 40 per cent and of linseed between 28 per cent and 32 per cent.

Very often the oil-man takes the help of family members for operations like cleaning and threshing the oil-seeds and marketing the oil. Some oil-men hire outside labour also. The average daily net earnings of an oil-man amount to Rs. 5 whereas a person employed by him is paid Rs. 1.50 per day.

Oilcake is the main by-product of the industry. Oilcake which is an excellent cattle-feed is purchased by the farmers for feeding bullocks. The price of oilcake ranges from Rs. 30 to Rs. 40 per 111.973 kg. (palla of three maunds). The poor use the oilcake of sesamum and coconut in the preparations of vegetables.

 

The occupation keeps the teli (oil-man) busy almost throughout the year.

Government have provided facilities for training the artisans in the improved methods of crushing and use of better implements at Nagpur. In 1959-60, there were 11 oil ghani co-operative societies in the district. The co-operatives had a membership of 274 oil-men, a share capital of Rs. 14,276 and a working capital of Rs. 63,075.

Fisheries

It is now generally accepted that the diet of an average Indian lacks in nutritional values. Fish, which is rich in proteins, can make up the deficiencies in the food and make it wholesome. Taking into consideration this fact, Government has made attempts to encourage fishing and to increase the consumption of fish.

There are no major riverine fisheries in Nagpur district except a seasonal fishery in Kanhan river. Major fishing industry is, therefore, located along the tanks, the Khindsi lake at Ramtek, Telankhedi and Gandhi Sagar tanks at Nagpur and a large number of other smaller tanks in the district especially those stocked with major varieties. Most of the tanks are seasonal and hence not useful for pisciculture.

Various co-operative societies were formed to organise fishermen. One society was established as early as in 1944. The following table gives the detailed information about the existing co-operative societies. (Table No. 10).

 
 

TABLE No. 10.
FISHERIES CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES IN NAGPUR DISTRICT.

Serial No.

(1)

Name of Society

(2)

Date
of
registr-
ation
(3)

Member-
ship


(4)

Share
capital
in Rs.
(5)

Tanks in charge of those societies

(6)

1
Fishermen's Multipurpose Co-operative society, Ramtek
19-12-44
435
4,552
Ramsagar (Khindii), Mansar, Chakorda.
2
Machhindra Machhli Co-operative Society, Nagpur
29-8-47
441
4,012
3
MatsyaVyavasaya Co-operative Society, Kuhi
12-1-5
198
2,430
Bhojapur tank.
4
Matsya Yojana Sahakari Sabha, Umrer
4-3-57
154
2,767
Gao talao and Pingalai tank, Umrer.
5
Bharatiya Vaidnyanik Matsya Utpadak Tatha Audyogik Sahakari Sanstha, Amhhora.
29-12-59
62
415
Shikarpur, Labhan, Tanda and Sawangi in Nagpur district and 7 tanks in Bhandara district.
6
Kuntalapur Machindra Co-operative Society, Katol
14-3-60
35
560
7
Jal Kshatriya Shramik Sahakari Sanstha, Nagpur
5-1-61
76
1,550
Gandhisagar (Nagpur).
8
Machhli Utpadak Sahakari Sanstha, Ghoti
8-7-61
24
520
9
MatsyaVyavasaya Co-operative Society, Gumgaon
2-10-62
24
520
Dahegaon tank.

 

The Fishermen's Multipurpose Co-operative Society at Ramtek started functioning actively from 1952-53. The Khindsi tank is leased to the society by the Public Works Department and the society has to pay a charge of 10 per cent of the price of the fish caught during a year. The tanks of Mansar and Chakorda are leased to the society by the Revenue Department for which the society pays a charge of Rs. 750 per year.

The fishermen get two-thirds of the actual fish caught while one-third is taken as commission by the society. The society has brought good fingerlings from Calcutta for rearing up in the tanks. Boats are made available to the members at a nominal charge of Rs. 7 per month. Advances arc granted to the members to make their own boats. The society makes available nylon thread and nets to the members for catching fish.

The following table gives the quantity of fish caught in different lakes during 1958-59, 1959-60 and 1960-61 and their prices:

 

TABLE No. 11.

Year

(1)

Khindsi Lake
Chakorda
Mansar Lake
Fish caught in
q-
(2)
Price in
Rs.
(3`)
Fish caught in
q-
(4)
Price in
Rs.
(5)
Fish caught in
q-
(6)
Price in
Rs.
(7)
1958-59
587.65
* ( 1,574-18)
80,766
8.58
(23-0)
1,351
5.97
(16-0)
1,0081
1959-60
433.44
(1,161-12)
64,795
61.70
(165-13)
13,104
56.46
(151-11)
12,102
1960-61
390.44
(1,046-03)
55,882
43.31
(116-05)
11,658
26.13
(70-00)
0,911

*Figures in brackets indicate maunds and seers.

 
The society disbursed a dividend of Rs. 6.25 per cent during the years 1953 to 1959. The income of a fisherman ranged between Rs. 500 and Rs. 600. The income and the expenditure of the society during 1960-61 was Rs. 39,000 and Rs. 35,255, respectively.

Industrial Estate Nagpur

An important scheme for the development of small industries in the district relates to the establishment of an Industrial Estate at Nagpur. One of the main difficulties often faced by a small entrepreneur while embarking on a new venture is the lack of suitable factory accommodation with the required facilities such as water, power, etc. The absence of these facilities sometimes compels him to settle in developed urban areas in order to avail himself of external economies like proximity of markets, speedy and efficient means of transport, supply of raw materials at reasonable prices, availability of skilled labour, etc. The period comprising the First and the Second Five-Year Plans witnessed all-round development in the fields of agriculture, forests, minerals, communications, electricity, water-supply,science and engineering. The problem of location of industries has assumed special importance and efforts are aimed at evolving a planned set-up for industrial development. It has been realised that prerequisites of industrial growth have to be created and maintained. It is against this background that the concept of Industrial Estate has come to stay. An entrepreneur may make his own arrangements for finance, technical knowhow, machinery, etc. But he finds it difficult as an individual to acquire a suitable site for the construction of factory-building. There are quite a large number of industrialists whose funds fall short of the required fixed and working capital. However, they would like to have neatly planned and ready built-up sheds possessing amenities like water and power. The scheme of Industrial Estates envisages helping small-scale industrialists to overcome these and other similar difficulties.

For the creation of an Industrial Estate, suitable sites are selected keeping in view its suitability of location, nearness to a railway station, and availability of power and water. The selected land is acquired and allotted to small-scale industrial units after dividing it into suitable plots according to their needs. Loans are advanced for the construction of factory buildings on a set pattern. Alternatively, suitable factory sheds are constructed and then allotted to needy entrepreneurs on rental, hire-purchase or outright-purchase basis.

The land selected and acquired for the Industrial Estate, Nagpur, is situated at a distance of about 8.047 km. (five miles) from Nagpur on the Nagpur-Kamptee road. It comprises land admeasuring 9.267 hectares (22.9 acres). It is endowed with facilities for the construction of a railway siding as well as a railway station. The construction work on the plot commenced at the close of 1959. It was proposed to construct 63 factory sheds on the site, of which 43 sheds would have a plot area of 36.576 x 18.288 metres (120'x60') and built-up area of 167.225 sq. metres (1,800 square feet). The remaining will have a plot area of 21.336 m. x 9.144 m. (70'x30') and built-up area of 83.613 sq. metres (900 square feet). During the period of the Second Five-Year Plan, 25 'C' type 9.144 m. x 18.288 m. (30'x60') and 12 'B' type 9.144 m. x 9.144 m. (30'x30') factory sheds were constructed. Besides, two wells, an approach road, bridge, internal roads, water and power facilities were also provided for. Up to 31st March 1961, 18 'C' type sheds and 8 'B' type sheds were allotted to various small industries. The Maharashtra State Financial Corporation grants loans to the entrepreneurs under the 'Agency Agreement' system. Financial assistance is also made available through the pilot scheme of the State Bank of India. Arrangements for the supply of machinery on hire-purchase basis are also made for the benefit of small entrepreneurs.

The scheme of the Industrial Estate at Nagpur was estimated to involve an expenditure of Rs. 25 lakhs. This expenditure was to be incurred on the construction of 'B' and 'C' type factory sheds, administration block, canteen, quarters for watchmen and overhead tank for supply of water. In the sheds already allotted, by the end of 1961, eight units had commenced production. They were engaged in manufacturing aluminium, utensils, wire-nails, exercise books and conduit pipes and buckets. Fifteen more units were expected to go into production, shortly after the completion of the setting up of machinery. Some of these planned to undertake production of transistor sets, malts, wire nettings, sized yarn. etc. ‘C’ type sheds were let out for Rs. 130 per month as against Rs. 85 for ‘B’ type sheds. Electricity was supplied to these units by the Nagpur Electric Light and Power Company, Nagpur. Water was provided through two wells constructed for the purpose. But the scheme envisaged supply of water from an over-head reservoir which has been constructed recently.

A common workshop has been housed in four sheds and machinery worth a lakh of rupees was installed in the beginning of 1962. A separate post office caters to the needs of the Industrial Estate. Statistics(Industrial Estates in India, 1963 by Dr. P. C. Alexander ; Asia Publishing House) regarding industrial estate at Nagpur as on March 31, 1962 were as follows: -

1. Area (in hectares)—8.093.
2. Number of sheds completed—37.
3. Number of sheds allotted—37.
4. Number of sheds occupied—35.
5. Number of sheds working—9.
6. Employment—157.
7. Number of firms from whom production figures have been
received—11.
8. Quarterly production (value in Rs.)—4, 49,684.



LABOUR ORGANISATION

III. LABOUR ORGANISATION

Trade Unions

Nagpur is one of the most industrialised districts of Maharashtra. Next to Bombay and the adjoining suburban area, Nagpur city is by far the most important industrial centre of the State. The textile industry at Nagpur is next only to Bombay. It is the oldest organised industry in the district, which was founded as early as 1877. As trade unionism is conditioned by the degree of industrialisation, Nagpur provided a good background for the growth of trade unionism.

The history of trade unionism in Nagpur dates back to the year 3919 when the workers of the Empress Mills organised and declared a strike. The movement towards unionism took roots first in the textile industry. The Nagpur Textile Union, a representatives union, had submitted a memorandum to the Royal Commission on Labour (1931). The Trade Unions legislation of 1926 went a long way towards giving a good shape to the movement. After the thirties, the movement was considerably strengthened due to the growth of organised industries. Trade unionism had, however, to wait till the post-war period (after 1945) for being organised on a sound footing. Till then it was not a force to be reckoned with. Since the Indian Independence, trade unions have rendered a yeoman's service in safegaurding and fostering the interests of the workers. They have been playing an important role in securing higher remunerations and bonus, and in bettering the conditions of service of the working class.

Since the enactment by the Government of India, of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, the relations between the industrial employees and the employers have been properly regulated. The Central Provinces and Berar Industrial Disputes Settlement Act, 1947, has provided a machinery for the settlement of industrial disputes either by conciliation or by arbitration.

The following table gives the number, membership, income, expenditure, assets and liabilities of the trade unions in the important industries in the district in 1957-58 and 1958-59.

 TABLE No. 12.
TRADE UNIONS IN NAGPUR DISTRICT IN THE YEARS 1957-58 AND 1958-59.

Name of Industry

(1)

No. of units
Membership
Income
Expenditure
Assets
Liabilities
1957-58
(2)
1958-59
(3)
1957-58
(4)
1958-59
(5)
1957-58
(6)
1958-59
(7)
1957-58
(8)
1958-59
(9)
1957-58
(10)
1958-59
(11)
1957-58
(12)
1958-59
(13)
1.
Mining and Quarrying
8
6
7,242
7,936
14,870
17,366
17,247
16,454
11,619
11,418
11,619
11,418
2.
Manufacture of Food beverages and tobacco.
8
5
2,122
3,170
7,111
5,107
8,108
3,151
6,436
5,932
6,436
5,932
3.
Textiles
2
3
10,288
13,164
29,217
46,263
25,537
40,651
27,042
49,278
27,042
49,278
4.
Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries.
5
5
1,322
1,284
3,521
11,511
3,014
5,806
1,204
6,884
1,204
6,884
5.
Chemicals and Chemical Products
4
4
226
224
724
1,155
522
1,134
301
323
301
323
6.
Miscellaneous
6
5
1,405
1,210
2,652
2,703
2,689
2,846
461
171
461
171
7.
Electricity gas, water and sanitary services.
3
2
715
1,810
1,347
4,537
1.056
2,209
2,027
2,027
2,027
4,214

 

The trade unions in the textile industry commanded the largest membership and the highest income and assets. Next followed the mining and quarrying industry. Trade unions in the industries manufacturing food, beverages and tobacco were also well-organised.

However, trade unionism in Nagpur has shown signs of sluggishness. This can be attributed to a number of causes. The chief among them are: (1) There are only a few organised industries, such as, textiles, mining and printing. This retarded the growth of class-consciousness among the workers. (2) The movement lacked leadership of the right type from amongst the workers. (3) Financial strength of the unions was far from sound. As the economic position of the workers was precarious, their capacity of contributing towards fees of the unions was very poor. The unions were not sound financially, and this weakened their bargaining power. (4) The migratory and unstable character of labour was also an impediment in the way of the growth of unionism. Many of the factories in the district were processing industries, e.g., ginning and pressing, oil-crushing, saw-milling, etc. They worked seasonally, and for the rest of the year, the workers took to other pursuits. This seriously hampered the growth of unity among the workers.

Wages and Earnings

By an award of the Industrial Tribunal known as the Mangalmurti Award, the basic wage of an employee in the cotton textile industry in Nagpur city was fixed at Rs. 26 per month. An addition of Rs. 6 per month in this basic wage was granted since January 1960 under the recommendations of the Cotton Textile Wage Board (Central). The dearness allowance for the textile industry workers has been stipulated to be linked with the cost of living index. The average dearness allowance admissible to a worker was Rs. 2.53 per day up to July, 1960.

Wages in other industries in the district are not standardised by any award. In the case of a few manufacturing concerns, the wages are fixed by agreement and settlement between the employers and employees.

The Minimum Wages Act, 1948 has been made applicable to a few industries in this district, viz., (1) oil mills, (2) public motor transport. (3) cement, (4) potteries, (5) rice, flour and dal mills, (6) stone-breaking and cutting, (7) leather, (8) glass, (9) bidi-making, (10) cotton-ginning and pressing, and (11) printing.

Industrial Disputes

A contented labour force and industrial peace are prerequisites for the healthy growth of industries. Cordial relations and a spirit of compromise between labour and management are essential for maintaining continuous industrial production. However, with the increased awakening among the labourers and the growth of trade unionism, occurrences of disputes among the workers and the management are more frequent now than they were before the early forties. Most of the dispute stem from one or the other reasons given below; (i) rates of wages and salaries, (ii) payment of bonus and other benefits, (iii) victi-misation of workers, (iv) working conditions, such as, lack of safety measures, sanitation and healthy atmosphere, (v) non-recognition of workers’ unions, and (vi). use of labour-saving devices and rationalisation of machinery.

In the history of industrial disputes the long drawn out crisis in the management of a textile mill in the district which occurred in 1961 is of special importance. Due to the closure of the mill, hundreds of workers were thrown out of employment for a considerable number of days. This inflicted hardships on the life of the worker. Since 1961 the mill is under the overall control of the Government. The new arrangement has instituted industrial peace in the mill.

The following statement gives the statistics of strikes and loss of working hours in the various industries during the period from 1958 to 1962: —

Year

(1)

Industry

(2)

Number of strikes

(3)

Loss of working hours

(4)

1958
(1) Textile
2
7,458
(2) Bidi
1
20
(3) Other Industries
3
4,943
1959
(1) Textile
6
3,188
(2) Oil Industry
2
11
(3) Other Industries
1
20
1960
(1) Textile
2
411
(2) Dal Mills
2
191
1961
(1) Textile
3
3
(2) Other Industries .
1
78
1962
(1) Bidi
3
932
(2) Miscellaneous
3
3,600

The following statement classifies the industrial disputes on the basis of causes that led to their occurrence from 1958 to 1962 : —

Year
(1)
Pay and allowances
(2)

Bonus

(3)

Leave and hours of work
(4)

Gratuity

(5)

Miscellaneous
matters
(6)
Total No. of disputes
(7)
1958
17
3
1
11
32
1959
19
6
6
34
65
1960
40
5
2
1
2
50
1961
23
9
4
2
8
46
1962
41
6
3
3
5
58

In 1958, seven disputes were settled, two were withdrawn and 23 ended in failure. Of the 65 disputes in 1959, ten were settled, two were withdrawn and 53 failed. Of the 50 disputes in 1960, five were settled and 45 failed. In 1961, 12 disputes were settled, seven were withdrawn and the remaining 27 failed. Forty-nine disputes failed in 1962, whereas five were settled and four were withdrawn.

The textile industry which is the best organised industry in Nagpur city suffered the heaviest losses due to strikes in 1961. As many as 1,357 workers in the textile industry at Nagpur were involved, in strikes in 1961.