THE LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT IN THE DISTRICT is conducted by various statutory bodies such as municipalities including Nagpur Municipal Corporation, Village Panchayats and the Zilla Parishad enjoying local autonomy in different degrees. The progress of these institutions could be marked in three spheres. Firstly, in regard to their constitution, from fully or partly nominated bodies, they have now become entirely elective. Secondly, their franchise had gone on widening from restricted franchise based on income to adult franchise. With the enactment of the Central Provinces and Berar Municipalities (Bombay Amendment) Act. 1957 (Bombay Act XVI of 1958) every person who (A) is a citizen of India, (B) has attained the age of 21 years and (C) has requisite residence, business premises or taxation qualification is now entitled to be enrolled as a voter. Prior to 1950 reservation of seats for women, Muhammedans, Harijans, Christians. Anglo-Indians and backward tribes had been provided for in the municipalities. It has been abolished with coming into force of the Central Provinces and Berar Municipalities (Bombay Amendment) Act, 1957 except in case of women and scheduled castes. Thirdly, wider and wider powers have gradually been conferred upon the local bodies culminating in the Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis Act, 1961 for the administration of the areas under their charge. This has resulted in the participation of the people in the Local Government creating facilities for training to shoulder higher responsibilities.
The supervision over the local bodies in Nagpur Division is conducted by the Divisional Commissioner. Nagpur Division, Nagpur. He exercises control over the local bodies under the Central Provinces and Berar Municipalities Act, 1922; the Madhya Pradesh Local Fund Audit Act, 1933; the Madhya Pradesh Public Health Act, 1949; the City of Nagpur Corporation Act, 1948; the Cattle Trespass Act, 1871; "the Central Provinces and Berar Primary Education Act, 1920 ; the Central Provinces and Berar Town Planning Act, 1948; the Central Provinces and Berar Grant-in-aid to Local Bodies Act, 1939; the Hackney Carriage Act, 1879; the Vaccination Act, 1880: the Municipal Taxation Act, 1881; the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1890; the Local Authorities Loans Act, 1914; the Central Provinces Slaughter of Animals Act, 1915 and the Provident Funds Act, 1925.
The total area under the administration of the municipalities in the district in 1961 was 287.366 km2. (110.91 sq. miles) with a population of 7,81,448 according to the 1961 census.
The Nagpur Municipal Corporation was constituted by combining the Nagpur municipality and the civil station subcommittee under the City of Nagpur Corporation Act, 1948. The Mohpa Gram Panchayat was converted into a municipality in 1955(Vide notification No. 1482-7825-M-B, dated the 23rdMarch, 1955.). The only cantonment in the district (the Kamptee Cantonment) is governed under the Cantonment Act of 1924.
The municipalities at Kamptee, Mohpa, Saoner, Katol, Umrer, Ramtek, Khapa, Narkhed, Kalmeshwar and Mowar are governed under the Central Provinces and Berar Municipalities Act, 1922.
The following table
gives the names of municipalities in the district along with the number
of councillors, reserved seats, etc.: —
Figures in the brackets denote area in sq. miles.
The term of office of the members of a municipality is five years. According to the Act, every municipality has to be presided (Section 8 of the Central Provinces and Berar Municipalities Act, 1922.) over by a President elected by the councillors from amongst themselves. The result of the election is to be notified in the official Gazette by the Collector (Section 20.). Each municipality will have a Vice-President who shall be appointed by the President from amongst the members of the Committee under Subsection (2) of Section 18 of the Central Provinces and Berar Municipalities Act, 1922 which will also be notified in the official Gazette by the Collector.
The President as the head of the municipality has to—
(a)preside over the meetings of the municipality,
Every municipality has to constitute a finance sub-committee. Constitution of other executive or consultative committees is optional. The Act stipulates obligatory and optional duties, the municipality has to perform. In addition to the duties stipulated under the Central Provinces and Berar Municipalities Act or any other enactments the municipality has to undertake and make provision for lighting public streets, places and buildings, cleaning public streets and places and sewers and all such sites which are not private property and which are open to the public whether such places vest in the municipality or not. The municipality has also to undertake removal of noxious vegetation and to abate public nuisances. The municipality has the responsibility of disposing of night-soil and rubbish, extinguishing fires and protecting life and property when fires occur, regulating or abating offensive or dangerous trade or practices, removing obstruction and projection in public streets or places, establishing and managing pounds including the areas where the Cattle Trespass Act, 1871 is in operation (all functions of the State Government and the Magistrate under Sections 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, (4, 17 and 18 of the Act), securing or removing dangerous buildings and sites; acquiring, maintaining and regulating places for the disposal of dead bodies, constructing and maintaining public streets and culverts in municipal areas, providing other facilities such as markets, slaughter-houses, etc, providing adequate and clean drinking water, naming streets and registering births, and deaths, carrying out public vaccination, establishing and maintaining primary schools, taking necessary measures for prevention of outbreak, spread and recurrence of infectious diseases, carrying out annually census of agricultural cattle etc. A municipality may at its discretion provide out of its funds for the following among other works with previous sanction and approval of the State Government: —
unhealthy localities, laying out whether in areas previously built upon
or not, new public streets, and acquiring land for the purpose;
The municipality is authorised to levy house tax on annual letting value of the houses; tax on any profession, trade or calling carried on in municipal limits; a tax on vehicles plying in the municipal areas and on domestic animals; a toll on animals entering municipal limits to be maintained as domestic pet animal's; an octroi on animals and goods brought within the municipal limits for sale, consumption or use ; market dues on persons exposing goods for sale in any market or place under the control of the municipality; fees on registration of cattle sold within municipal limits; latrine or conservancy tax, water-rate, lighting rate or drainage rate if such facilities are provided for by the municipality and a tax on persons travelling by railway to or from a municipality to which pilgrims resort or on pilgrims.
The State Government may by rules made under this Act, regulate imposition of taxes and fix maximum rate for any tax. Any tax that a municipality has to impose for the first time can be imposed only after the prior sanction of the Government. The municipality has also to take previous sanction of the Government for abolition of any tax specified in sub-section (1), clauses (X), (O), (P) or any variation in the amount of rates thereof.
The State Government may raise objections to the levy of any particular tax which appears to it to be unfair in its incidence or obnoxious to the interest of the general public and suspend the levy of it until such time as the objections are removed. The State Government may require a municipality to impose taxes when it appears to it that the balance of the municipal fund is insufficient for meeting any cost incurred by any person acting under the directions of the Collector or of the Commissioner.
The rates at which taxes are levied by municipalities do not enable them to meet all their expenditure. Their incomes have to be supplemented by numerous Government grants, both recurring and non-recurring. For instance, grants are made by Government to municipalities towards water-supply and drainage schemes, expenditure on controlling epidemics, payment of dearness allowance to staff, etc. These grants add substantially to the municipal income.
Control over the municipalities is exercised by the Collector, Nagpur District, Nagpur; the Commissioner, Nagpur Division, Nagpur and the State Government. The Collector has powers of entry and inspection in regard to any immovable property occupied by a municipality or any work in progress under it. He may also, call for extracts from the proceedings of a meeting of the municipality or for any books or documents in its possession or under its control. He may also require a municipality to take into consideration any objection he has to any of its acts or any action on its part. These powers can be delegated by the Collector to the Assistant or Deputy Collector (Sub-Divisional Officers) in the district.
The Collector has powers to order a municipality to prohibit, pending the orders of the State Government, the execution of any of its order or resolution if, in his opinion, it is likely to cause injury or annoyance to the public or to lead to a breach of peace or is unlawful. In cases of emergency, the Government may provide for the execution of any works or the doing of any act which a municipality is empowered to execute or to do and the immediate execution or doing of which is necessary for the health or safety of the public, and may direct that the expenses shall be paid forthwith by the municipality.
On the recommendations of a municipality the Commissioner can remove any councillor guilty of misconduct in the discharge of his duties.
When satisfied that a municipality has made a default in performing any statutory duty imposed on it, the State Government may direct the Divisional Commissioner to fix a period for the performance of that duty, and if the particular duty is not performed within the period stipulated, the Commissioner may appoint some person to perform it and direct that the expenses shall be forthwith paid by the municipality. If the State Government is of the view that any municipality is not competent to perform or persistently makes default in the per formance of its duties or exceeds or abuses its powers, it may either dissolve the municipality or supersede it for a specific period. The president or vice-president of a municipality may be removed by the State Government for misconduct or for negligence or incapability in regard to the performance of their duties.
The audit of all local fund accounts is provided for by the Local Fund Audit Act, 1933. The Divisional Commissioner, on receipt of the Report of the Examiner of Local Fund Accounts, may disallow any item of expenditure which appears to him to be contrary to law and surcharge the same on the person making or authorising the making of the illegal payment.
Like the Greek City States, the villages in ancient India had always been autonomous units. The characteristic feature of administration in ancient India was the prevalence of freedom and autonomy in governing the village institutions. However, the villages lost their autonomy as more power came to be vested and concentrated in the sovereign kings.
During the British Administration, some attempts were made to revive the Local Self-Government institutions in India with a view to training the people in the administration of such institutions by giving them representations in such local bodies. As a result, municipalities, district school boards and janpadsabhas came to be established, subsequently. Village panchayats also came to be founded and as a result of this it was possible for British Government to regenerate confidence among the masses inhabiting the rural areas.
Vidarbha organised its gram panchayats and nyaya panchayats in 1946. while in Marathwada region the village panchayats started functioning in every village with a population of 5,000 and above in 1941. After the reorganisation of the erstwhile State of Bombay, the Village Panchayats Act was passed in 1958, for the whole State. This Act envisaged a Village Panchayat Mandal for every district. Not only this but gat-nyaya panchayats came to be organised for groups of five or more village panchayats.
In course of time, the experience gained indicated that the progress of rural development was not commensurate with the expectations of the Government. Various development activities introduced in the various Plan periods could not achieve a commendable amount of success owing to non-participation of the villagers in the implementation of such developmental schemes. The Central Government came to the conclusion that it was necessary for the Government to investigate the causes behind such a state of affairs. It therefore appointed a committee called the ' Balwantrai Mehta Committee'.
The ‘Balwantrai Mehta Committee’ pointed out mainly, among other findings, That the Government could not succeed in appealing and attracting the leadership of the masses to participate in the Community Development and National Developmental Schemes. Institutions of the type of the Local Self-Government had not taken any deep interest to participate in such developmental schemes and had not shown any initiative for such work. The part played by the village panchayats in such works was also not very encouraging. There was very often interference from the Government in the affairs of the working of the Local Boards. The Committee came to the conclusion that the urgent necessity of the day, to remedy this state of affairs, was the decentralisation of power and responsibility at the lower level. The Committee, therefore, suggested that the responsibility for such regional and local development work should be assigned to such local institutions at the district level with the Government accepting the role of guiding, supervising and planning from a higher level, making available the required finances and so on.
The ‘Bahvantrai Mehta Committee’ recommended the formation of Local Committees on par with Block Development Committees, to be named as Panchayat Samitis, and at the district level a District Committee to be called ' Zilla Parishad', instead of the Local Boards, etc., in order to secure integration in the various developmental activities. Thus, the Gram Panchayat, the Panchayat Samiti and the Zilla Parishad are the three responsible functionaries in the decentralisation of administration, which are entrusted with the implementation of the Developmental Schemes.
Thus, an Act, to provide for the establishment of Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis, to assign to them local Government functions, and to entrust the execution of certain works and development schemes in the State Five-Year Plans and to provide for the decentralisation of powers and functions under certain enactments was passed in 1961, known as the Maharashtra Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis Act, 1961.
Under the Maharashtra Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis Act, 1961, the following departments of the State operating in the district have been transferred to the Zilla Parishad: —
(1) General Administration
Before the Zilla Parishad came into existence, Local Self- Government in the district was working at district, taluka and village level. It was conducted by various statutory bodies, enjoying local autonomy in different degrees. The progress of these institutions was in three spheres. Firstly, in regard to their constitutions, from fully or partly nominated bodies, they have become entirely elective. Secondly, their franchise, which was widening, had, with the enactment of the Bombay Local Authorities Adult Franchise and Removal of Reservation of Seats Act (XVII of 1950), reached the widest limits possible, viz., universal adult franchise ; every person who -
(a) is a citizen
Thirdly, wider and wider powers have been gradually conferred on local bodies for the administration of the areas under their charge. The primary schools in the municipal areas are run by the Zilla Parishad.
Under the Maharashtra Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis Act, 1961 which came into force from May 1, 1962, all ex-Boards, i.e., District Local Board, District School Board, District Building Committee, District Development Board were abolished and their work was vested in the Zilla Parishad. All village panchayats have to work under their respective Taluka Samitis.
The following offices of the Government also were taken over by the Zilla Parishad: —
1. District Village
Subjects of Activities.
In what follows is described, in brief, the subjects of activities of different departments:—
management, maintenance and the giving of grants to agricultural schools
(including grants-in-aid to agricultural schools), but not including
matters relating to (i) laying down of syllabus, (ii) prescription of
text-books and (iii) conducting annual examinations.
(a) Veterinary aid
(excluding district veterinary hospitals but
(a) Village forests and grazing lands (including measures for development of village woodlands for purposes of pasture and fuel).
development of backward classes, including measures relating to—
(c) Removal of untouchability.
management, maintenance and inspection of primary and basic schools,
including grants-in-aid to schools but excluding—
(a) Taluka dispensaries,
including their upgrading.
(a) Ayurvedic and
Unani dispensaries (including giving grants to such dispensaries).
(a) Primary health
(e) School health
Buildings and Communications.
maintenance and repairs of—
(a) Rural water-supply.
Minor Irrigation Works (only those works which irrigate 250 acres or less).
and Cottage Industries
(c) Training institutes
and schools, excluding research institutes and institutes meant for
an area larger than a district.
of co-operative societies (only in respect of those societies whose
working capital does not exceed rupees five lakhs each and whose jurisdiction
is less than a district).
(a) Mobile publicity
(a) Community Development
(a) Community recreation
(a) Rural housing.
(a) Village uplift.
Powers and Functions
The powers and
functions of the non-official office-bearers of the Zilla Parishad are
detailed below. The President shall—
The President may in cases of emergency direct the execution or suspension or stoppage of any work or the doing of any act which requires the sanction of the Zilla Parishad or any authority thereof, and immediate execution or doing of which, in his opinion, is necessary for the service or safety of the public, and may direct that the expense of executing such work or doing such act shall be paid from the District Fund.
Provided that, he shall report forthwith the action taken under this Section, and the full reasons thereof to the Zilla Parishad, the Standing Committee and the appropriate Subjects Committee at their next meetings and the Zilla Parishad, or the Committee may amend or annul the direction made by the President.
(a) in the absence
of the President, preside at the meetings of the Zilla Parishad ;
The Vice-President who is the Chairman of two Subjects Committees gets consolidated honorarium of Rs. 300 per month along with rent-free residential accommodation.
Chairman of Standing Committee or subjects Committee
Subject to the provisions of the Act, and the rules made thereunder by the State Government, the Chairman of the Standing Committee or a Subjects Committee shall—
(i) convene, preside
at and conduct meetings of the Committee and
Chairmand of Standing committee or Subjects committee
The Chairman of
any such Committee may, in relation to subjects allotted to the Committee,—
Provided that the Chairman of the Standing Committee may, in relation to any subject allotted to any Subjects Committee, also exercise the powers under this clause.
The Chairman of the Standing Committee may grant leave of absence for any period exceeding two months, but not exceeding four months, to any officer of Class I Service (other than the Chief Executive Officer) or Class II Service holding office under the Zilla Parishad.
Save as otherwise provided by or under this Act, the powers to be exercised and the duties to be discharged by, and which subjects enumerated in the district list are to be allotted to, the Standing Committee and each of the Subjects Committees, shall be such as may be prescribed by regulations; but all subjects in relation to social welfare enumerated in the district list are allotted to the Standing Committee.
The Vice-President is the Chairman of two Subjects Committees. The Councillors have to elect from amongst elected Councillors two persons to he Chairmen of the remaining Subjects Commit-[tees. They also get an honorarium of Rs. 300 each per month along with rent-free residential accommodation.
A Chief Executive Officer, a Deputy Chief Executive Officer, Block Development Officers and the Heads of various departments of the Zilla Parishad are the executive officers of the Zilla Parishad. They are all gazetted officers and are transferable by the State Government to other districts. The Chief Executive Officer belongs to the cadre of Indian Administrative Service and his rank is equal to that of a Collector. The Deputy Chief Executive Officer is an officer of the rank of the Deputy Collector. The Block Development Officers are Class II Officers while the heads of the departments are either Class I or Class II Officers.
Powers and duties of the Executive Officer
Chief Executive Officer
The Chief Executive
Deputy Chief Executive Officer
The Deputy Chief Executive Officer shall be the Secretary, ex-officio, of the Zilla Parishad, as well as the Standing Committee(Sections 9 and 79 of the Act.).
Block Development Officer
The Block Development Officer—
(i) shall have
the custody of all papers and documents connected with the proceedings
of meetings of the Panchayat Samitis;
Head of the departments
(i) Every head
of the department of the Zilla Parishad may, in respect of works and
development schemes pertaining to his department, accord technical sanction
The Nagpur Zilla Parishad started functioning from May 1, 1962 with the coming into force of the Maharashtra Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis Act, 1961 (No. V of 1962). The Parishad consists of 63 members, 51 elected and 12 co-opted, co-opted members being two for each Committee. Nine Chairmen of the Panchayat Samitis are elected to the Zilla Parishad while four are ex-officio members of the Zilla Parishad by virtue of their being Chairmen of the Panchayat Samitis.
The Zilla Parishad
has been divided into six Subjects Committees along with the Standing
Committee. The Subjects Committees along with the department of the
Zilla Parishad they control are as under: —
The Chief Executive Officer is the administrative head of the Zilla Parishad.
General Administration Department
In what follows is given a short description of the working of the departments of the Zilla Parishad.
The General Administration department of the Zilla Parishad came into being with effect from May 1, 1962, along with six other departments of the Zilla Parishad. The General Administration department is headed by the Deputy Chief Executive Officer. He is besides the Secretary of the Standing Committee of the Zilla Parishad. Prior to May I, 1962, the General Administration department was not in existence but two branches of the Collector's office viz,, the development branch and the village panchayat branch were dealing with the development work. The development branch was headed by the District Project Officer in the Deputy Collector's grade and the village panchayat branch by Village Panchayat Officer who was also in the Deputy Collector's grade. The important role of the General Administration department of the Zilla Parishad is to control the whole non-gazetted establishment of the Zilla Parishad and Panchayat Samitis, to arrange for the meetings of the Zilla Parishad and Subjects Committee, to plan for the development works to be undertaken by the Zilla Parishad and to keep administrative control on all the departments and the Panchayat Samitis. All revenue and village panchayat matters of the Zilla Parishad are dealt with by this department.
The department deals with groups of subjects of a nontechnical nature and [he work is controlled and supervised by the Standing Committee. The work of the department is done through its different sections such as establishment, parishad, planning and development, panchayat, revenue, miscellaneous, registry and record.
Social Welfare Department
The Social Welfare department forms a section of the General Administration department, which is headed by the Social Welfare Officer (Class II Gazetted).
The activities carried out by the Social Welfare department in Nagpur district ate classified into Backward Class Welfare and Social Welfare Programmes.
Backward Class Welfare Programmes
Backward Class Welfare programmes aim at the amelioration of the conditions of the backward classes, so that they reach the standards of other sections of the society as quickly as possible. Several schemes of educational, financial and miscellaneous nature have been sanctioned for their welfare. Under educational schemes, various concessions towards payment of scholarships, tuition fees and examination fees are granted to all categories of backward classes. The department encourages the voluntary agencies to maintain hostels for boys and girls belonging to backward classes by giving substantial grants-in-aid, the advantage of which is taken by all categories of students belonging to backward classes.
Under the housing programme, subsidy is. given to the backward class families towards construction of houses.
Though the activities under Social Welfare do not come under the Zilla Parishad, still the Social Welfare Officer of the Zilla Parishad has to do the work concerning the Social Welfare activities in the district. They include —
(1) State Home for Rescued Women, (2) Certified School, (3) Remand Homes, (4) Home for Crippled Children, (5) Government Shelter Workshop for dear, mute etc., (6) Social and Physical Welfare Institutions, (7) dance, drama and music schools, (8) grants to orphanages and (9) grants to institutions for physically handicapped.
The Juvenile Guidance Centre which is functioning at Nagpur has been transferred to the Zilla Parishad on agency basis and the Social Welfare Officer has to look after this Centre though there is an Organizer for the centre.
Kalapathak.—Under the Directorate of Social Welfare of the former Government of Madhya Pradesh, the Kalapathak forming a cultural squad was attached to each district. The same squad consisting of seven artistes is being continued in Vidarbha region after the reorganisation of States in November, 1956. Each Kalapathak is equipped with musical instruments, stage equipment and green-room accessories. A Kalapathak is a song and drama party that instructs while it entertains. Dramatics, bhajanas, powadas, dialogues are some of the items of its repertoire. In short, they stage performances to bring into limelight all social handicaps and the ways to overcome them.
Under audio-visual scheme, films and documentaries are exhibited in the villages.
The Finance department of the Zilla Parishad is entrusted with four-fold duties, viz., accounts, audit, custody of cash, and custody and verification of stores. It has also to act as financial advisor to the several departments of the Zilla Parishad. The Chief Accounts and Finance Officer who is the Secretary of the Finance Committee is the head of the department and is drawn from the Indian Audit and Accounts Service. There is an Accounts Officer to assist him.
Preparation of the budget is also a function of the department which is dealt with by an independent branch created for the purpose. The department co-ordinates the budgets of the several departments before they are placed for approval. The Subjects Committees scrutinise the budget proposals and make recommendations. The Chairman of the Finance Committee is ex-officio President of the Standing Committee for Finance and guides the deliberations of the Committee.
The Accounts and Audit branches are under the initial supervision of two experienced Head Assistants, one drawn from the Treasury and the other from the ex-Janapada Sabha.
The department has also a stores branch which is controlled by a Superintendent. This is in addition to another stores branch functioning in the Works department under the supervision of a Store-Keeper.
As mentioned earlier, Finance department is in custody of cash. Pursuant to this, funds required for the activities of the Panchayat Samitis are allotted by the department through the Central Co-operative Bank, Nagpur, which has nine branches in the district. The budgets of the Panchayat Samitis are included in the budget of the Zilla Parishad. Otherwise, the Panchayat Samitis work as independent units in respect of works executed in their respective jurisdictions.
During 1962-63, the income of the Nagpur Zilla Parishad was estimated at Rs. 1,58,98,367 and expenditure at Rs. 1,76,06,874.
The Works department like other departments is directly under the administrative control of the Chief Executive Officer. The Parishad Executive Engineer is the head of the department and is solely responsible for execution of works pertaining to buildings, roads and irrigation works under the Parishad. The execution of these works Is vested mainly in the Deputy Engineers in charge of the Sub-Divisions under the Parishad Executive Engineer.
In Nagpur district there -are 13 Panchayat Samitis and the works in these Panchayat Samitis are under the administrative control of the Block Development Officers concerned. So far as the technical matters are concerned the Block Development Officers are under the administrative control of Parishad Executive Engineer and in respect of all other matters they are directly responsible to the Chief Executive Officer, Zilla Parishad, Nagpur.
The Works Department has undertaken many constructional activities in the district. The construction of Jalalkheda-Karanja road with a length of 9 miles and three furlongs has been completed along with the improvements to Nagpur-Katol Road. Only minor works remain to be done in case of Gond-khairi-Chungri road and Amdi-Naikund-Parseoni roads. The works that are partially completed include Hingna-Hingani road. Girad-Umrer road, Panchgaon-Kuhi road, Hingna-Kanholi road, Narkhed-Sawargaon road, Umrer-Bori road, Godhani-Zilpa road, Sawargaon-Pimpla road, Kalmeshwar-Dhapewada road, Mohpa-Dhapewada road and Kudegaon-Khapa road.
The Agriculture department is in the charge of the Parishad Agricultural Officer who is directly responsible to the Chief Executive Officer of the Zilla Parishad. He is assisted by one Assistant District Agricultural Officer and two Agricultural Officers and members of the subordinate service.
The District Agricultural Officer has been specially assigned the work relating to animal husbandry. He is the head of the animal husbandry section of The department. In this work he is assisted by the Animal Husbandry Officer of the Zilla Parishad who is in actual charge of the section.
The Agricultural Officers' have to undertake kharif and rabi campaigns, paddy pilot scheme and have to look after the work of their subordinate staff. The District Agricultural Officer is responsible for the development of agricultural activities with a view to increasing agricultural production in the district.
The Animal Husbandry department at the district level was headed by the District Animal Husbandry Officer and many of the powers of the Regional Deputy Director, Animal Husbandry, had been delegated to him. With the formation of the Zilla Parishad, the Animal Husbandry department is merged with the Agriculture department and it now forms a section of Agriculture department. The Animal Husbandry Officer is responsible for the technical guidance pertaining to all animal husbandry matters and as a head of the Section he is directly responsible to the Chief Executive Officer, Zilla Parishad, Nagpur.
Before the inception of the Zilla Parishad, education was under the jurisdiction of the State Government and the Director of Education was the head of the department at the State level.
Central Government schemes and the State Government policies regarding education were executed at the district level by the Government Inspectorate in the district. The District Inspectorate consisted ot one Educational Inspector, one Deputy Educational Inspector and 34 Assistant Deputy Educational Inspectors. All educational institutions in the district were under the control of the Educational Inspector. To facilitate the administration of primary education, District School Boards were entrusted with the work of primary education. Secondary schools, primary training colleges and other technical and professional institutions were directly under the control of the Educational Inspector. The Inspector and his deputies visited and inspected these institutions and recommended grants-in-aid. Besides this, the responsibility of the control of the primary education also partly vested with the Educational Inspector, as he was empowered to have general supervision over the administration of the schools.
The District School Board which is now a defunct body was composed of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman, and 14 other elected and nominated members. The Administrative Officer, who worked as the ex-officio Secretary of the body, was the representative of the State Government to guide the Board on Government policies in respect of educational matters. He executed the programmes chalked out by the Board for Primary Education in consultation with the Staff Selection Committee, a statutory body under the Primary Education Act, 1947. Teachers were interviewed, selected and appointed by him in accordance with the rules prescribed by the State Government.
The academic side
of primary schools was supervised and controlled by the Assistant Deputy
Educational Inspectors working under the control of the Educational
Inspector who visited and inspected the primary schools. They recommended
cases for opening of primary schools, grants to primary schools, etc.,
through the Deputy Educational Inspector who was their immediate superior.
This was in brief the picture of the administrative set-up with the powers and duties of the functionaries of the Education department prior to the advent of the Zilla Parishad.
The Parishad Educational Officer is the head of the Education department in the district. He has to work under the direct control of the Chief Executive Officer of the Zilla Parishad. He is assisted by two Deputy Educational Officers along with 22 Assistant Deputy Educational Inspectors.
In 1962 there were 5 Senior Basic schools, 7 non-Government primary schools both for hoys and girls and 781 other primary schools. In addition, there were 75 non-Government and 2 Government middle schools. Thirteen primary schools were given permission to extend the classes up to middle school.
Public Health Department
Under the Maharashtra Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis Act, 1961, all responsibilities regarding public health and medical aid in rural areas have been transferred to the Zilla Parishad. As such the Public Health Staff and Medical Staff (except that of the Civil hospital and Cottage hospitals) formerly working under Public Health department, Medical department and ex-Janapada Sabha have been transferred to the Zilla Parishad, Nagpur, from May 1, 1962.
The health matters in the district arc under dual control. The primary health centres, maternity and child health centres along with other institutions in the district health organisation are looked after entirely by the Zilla Parishad while the leprosy survey, education and treatment units and family planning centres arc looked after by the Zilla Parishad on agency basis. The department in the State sector controls the following institutions in the district: —
1. Medical College,
The municipal allopathic dispensaries run by the different municipal committees are also controlled in the State sector by the Civil Surgeon, Nagpur.
The health department of the Zilla Parishad is looked after by the Public Health Officer of the Zilla Parishad as the head of the department. All the staff pertaining to the schemes controlled by the Zilla Parishad works under him. The services of all Assistant Medical Officers have been transferred to the Zilla Parishad. The Public Health Officer works as the Secretary to the Health Committee.
The Zilla Parishad has under its control 12 allopathic dispensaries which were formerly under the different Janapad Sahhas. The ayurvedic dispensaries and the vaccination establishment which were controlled by the Janapad Sabhas have also been transferred to the Zilla Parishad. Six family planning centres in rural areas and organisation of vasectomy camps, orientation camps arc some of the duties of the Zilla Parishad. Four leprosy survey, education and treatment centres in rural areas are managed by the Zilla Parishad while the leprosy sub-centre at Umrer and a temporary hospital ward at Mayo Hospital are in the State sector.
The national smallpox eradication scheme is also transferred to the Zilla Parishad. The implementation of the State scheme with central assistance has been given to the Zilla Parishad. The necessary equipment has also been provided to the Zilla Parishad.
The Director of Public Health, Maharashtra State, exercises technical control over all the health activities of the Nagpur Zilla Parishad through the Deputy Director of Public Health Services, Nagpur.
Industries and Co-operation Department
The revised set-up of the Co-operative department of the State Government came into existence from March 1, 1961 according to which the District Deputy Registrar, Co-operative Societies, was made the District head and under him three Assistant Registrars were placed with territorial jurisdictions. The co-operative department was executing two types of functions, viz., (1) regulatory and (2) promotional and extension activities. According to the Maharashtra Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis Act, 1961 the Zilla Parishad has been entrusted with the promotional and extension activities with certain reservations for municipal areas. The regulatory functions have, however, been retained with the department in the State sector.
The department is headed by the Officer who is designated as Co-operation and Industries Officer. He is assisted by a Co-operative Officer and one Assistant Co-operative Officer along with two Extension Officers, one for co-operation and one for industries, attached to each Panchayat Samiti.
The statutory powers
under the Co-operative Societies Act, 1960 regarding registration of
Co-operative Societies and amendment of bye-laws and hearing appeals
for non-admission of membership by co-operative societies arc delegated
to this officer under the Zilla Parishad.
(a) All councillors
who are elected on the Zilla Parishad from the electoral divisions in
The Chairman of
the Panchayat Samiti is paid an honorarium of Rs. 300 per month with
the facilities of free residential accommodation(Vide Section 69 of
the Act.). The Deputy Chairman of Panchayat Samiti is paid an honorarium
of Rs. 150 per month (Vide Section 69 of the Act.).
Powers and Functions of Deputy Chairman
(1) The Deputy Chairman
of a Panchayat Samiti shall—
The last but not the least important ring in the chain of Government is provided for by the panchayats which form the base of Government.
Village Panchayats Act of 1946.
The Village Panchayats Act of 1946, brought in force from 1946, envisaged the establishment of village panchayats for villages the population of which was above 1,000, above 500 and below 500 in three stages. Within one year, the phased programme was completed except for a few villages in the last stage
.According to the Act of 1946 the panchayats with membership between 5 and 15 were established on the basis of male adult franchise. They were to elect a Sarpanch and an up-sarpanch from amongst themselves. The revenue Palil of the village was an ex-officio member of the panchayat.
The Act divided the duties of the village panchayats into obligatory and optional.The obligatory duties of the village panchayats included sanitary and health measures, construction and repairs of roads, maintenance of birth and death registers, providing water-supply, and to undertake such other works meant for public convenience while the optional duties involved construction and maintenance of dharmashalas, development of agriculture, co-operation, veterinary services, etc. The gram-panchayats were to undertake the optional functions provided their funds permitted.
The incomes of the village panchayats were derived from various sources such as cesses, house-tax, sanitary-tax, and other taxes as also grants from Janapad Sabhas and the Government.
Judicial functions were also performed by a few gram-panchayats. They were authorised to impose fine up to Rs. 20 and conduct civil suits of the value of not more than Rs. 100. The appeals against the decisions were heard by the District and Sessions Judge. The panchayats were authorised to appoint the Secretaries and other necessary staff.
Village Panchayats Act, 1958
After the reorganisation
of States, the Bombay Village Panchayats Act, 1958, was made applicable
to the district.
The special features of the new Act are: —
of two seats for women in every village panchayat,
With the formation
of the Zilla Parishad the District Panchayat Mandal has been abolished
and the Village Panchayat Officer now works with the Zilla Parishad.
The control of the Village Panchayats now vests in the Zilla Parishad
through Panchayat Samitis.
At the Village Assistants Training Centre, Kamptee, so far over 105 Village Assistants (Village Panchayat Secretaries) have been trained. An additional refreshers' course for one month was also held for the Village Assistants and the Patwaris who had undergone training as Village Assistants. The Village Assistant and the Sarpanch work in perfect co-operation and complement each other in the performance of their numerous functions.
Village Panchayats in the district get land revenue grants at a uniform rate of twenty-five per cent of the Land Revenue collected during the preceding year. The total amount disbursed on account of Land Revenue Grants in 1960-61 worked out to Rs. 1,62,407.38.
Village Panchayats have recently gained importance not only as administrative units but also as basic institutions for rural planning and all-round development of rural areas. Village Panchayats have been made the sole non-official agency for executing development works in the Community Development Blocks with the democratic decentralization envisaged by the establishment of the Zilla Parishad and the Panchayat Samitis.
The Maharashtra State has an independent Town Planning and Valuation department under the administrative control of the Urban Development and Public Health Department. The department principally deals with two important subjects, viz, 'Town Planning' and 'Valuation of Real Property'.
Duties and functions
2. The Duties and Functions of the department are as under—
The Consulting Surveyor
to Government is the chief expert adviser of Government on the subject
and his duties include—.
(4) valuation for
purposes of fixing standard rates of non-agricultural assessment and
prescribing zones of values in all villages and rising localities in
the vicinity of important and growing towns;
(1) To advise the
various heads of departments of Government in the selection of sites
for public purpose,
The department was started in 1914 with the Consulting Surveyor to Government as its head who later on was assisted by one Assistant Consulting Surveyor, one Deputy Assistant Consulting Surveyor and two Senior Assistants with the requisite staff. As the activities of the department increased, these Assistants had to be posted at prominent places in the State to meet the prime requisites of town and city planning. There has been a considerable increase in the activities of the department in recent years with the consequential increase in the number of branch offices in the State. The head office of this department is at Poona and the other branch offices are at Bombay, Kolhapur. Nagpur, Amravati, Aurangabad, Kalyan and Sholapur. Some of the officers have been appointed to function as the Land Acquisition Officers and there are thus two full-time Special Land Acquisition Officers at Poona and one full-time Land Acquisition Officer at Bombay in addition to two part-time Land Acquisition Officers at Bombay and Poona.
The statutory powers regarding planning were embodied under the Bombay Town Planning Act, 1915 which was in force so far in the State. This Act has been replaced by the Bombay Town Planning Act. 1954. The new Act generally incorporates the provisions of the Bombay Town Planning Act, 1915 and in addition makes it obligatory on every Local Authority (barring village panchayats) to prepare a development plan for the entire area within its jurisdiction. The development plan aims at the improvement of existing congested gaothan portion of the town and contains proposals in respect of the outlying open areas so as to guide their development on planned basis. The proposals of the development plan can be implemented by the preparation of statutory Town-Planning Schemes. In preparing Town Planning Schemes, the planner can ignore to a great extent the existing plot boundaries. In designing this layout the existing holdings can be reconstituted and made subservient to the plan, and building plots of good shape and frontage can be allotted to owners of lands ill-shaped for building purposes and without access. The cost of a scheme can be recovered from the owners benefited to the extent of 50 per cent of the increase in the value of the land estimated to accrue by the carrying out of the works contemplated in the scheme. When a draft Town Planning Scheme prepared by a Local Authority in consultation with the owners is sanctioned, a Town Planning Officer is appointed. His duties are to hear each owner individually, consider his objections or proposals and make suitable adjustments or amendments in the draft Scheme proposals, if found necessary.
Most of the Local Authorities have no technical staff of their own to prepare the development plans and it has been decided that this department should prepare the development plans on behalf of Local Authorities under the provisions of the Bombay Town Planning Act, 1954. Accordingly, a scheme for the preparation. of Development Plan has been introduced in the Second Five-Year Plan.
In the erstwhile Madhya Pradesh region, the Town Planning department was established in 1947 under a State Town Planning Expert with head office at Nagpur. The department functioned under the administrative control of the Local Serf-Government Department of the Madhya Pradesh State. The Central Provinces and Berar Town Planning Act was enacted in 1948 and the Central Provinces and Berar Regulation of Uses of Land Act was also enacted in the same year to provide for the making and execution of Town Planning Schemes and to regulate the development of areas with the object of securing proper sanitary conditions, amenities and convenience to persons living in such areas and in neighbouring areas.
Consequent upon the reorganisation of States that took place on November 1, 1956, a new branch office of this department came into existence at Nagpur for the four districts of Nagpur, Chanda, Wardha and Bhandara. The Deputy Assistant Consulting Surveyor to Government is the head of the above branch office. The making and execution of town planning schemes and the development of the areas is still being regulated under the above two Acts, which are at present in force there. It is proposed to extend the application of the Bombay Town Planning Act, 1954 to the above region replacing the Central Provinces and Berar Town Planning Act, 1948.
The Nagpur Municipal Committee was established in 1864. The Civil Station Sub-Committee was established in 1884.
The Municipal Corporation of Nagpur was constituted with the amalgamation of these two. In 1928, the Municipal Committee passed a resolution for creating an "Improvement Trust" for Nagpur which was established in 1937 under the Nagpur Improvement Trust Act, 1936. This Trust is still working and has collateral jurisdiction over the areas within the limits of the town wherever schemes are prepared by the Trust and approved by the Government. Certain schemes of the Corporation such as underground drainage scheme, schemes for improvement of road junctions are executed by the Trust on behalf of the Corporation. The development of lands-within scheme areas is being carried out by the Trust. The work of the Nagpur Improvement Trust concerning the proposals of Trust lands and fixation of rates of premia for such purposes, zoning and layout regulations is required to he scrutinised by this department on behalf of Government.
Master Plans for the towns of Kamptee and Kalmeshwar from the district have been prepared by this department. A town planning scheme for an area admeasuring about 66.773 hectares (165 acres) at Katol is under preparation in the Nagpur branch office on behalf of the Katol Municipal Committee. A number of layouts, viz., of villages under the village housing project scheme, for Industrial Estate at Nagpur, for rehabilitation of displaced persons, for Harijan Housing and layouts of Nazul lands have been prepared so far.