BUILDINGS AND COMMUNICATIONS DEPARTMENT
 

Organisation

THE BUILDINGS AND COMMUNICATIONS DEPARTMENT at the district level is under the dual control of the State Government and the Zilla Parishad, respectively. The sphere of activities has been divided into two sectors. The works regarding the Major District Roads and the roads of the lower order, buildings required by the Animal Husbandry department and other departments at the tahsil level, constructional activities under the block development schemes and works relating to tanks that will irrigate less than 2,000 acres of land are 'the responsibility of the Zilla Parishad while the works relating to National High-ways, State Highways and the buildings required for the administrative departments in the State sector, such as judicial department, police department, etc., are entrusted to the department in the State sector. Buildings required for research and agricultural college by the department of agriculture are also the responsibility of the department in the State sector.

Chief Engineer and other Functionaries

The Chief Engineer who is also the Joint Secretary to the Chi. Government is the head of the department at the State level. Under the Chief Engineer are the Superintending Engineers of Buildings- and Communications Circles and Electrical Engineer to the Government. Each Circle comprising five or more divisions is controlled by a Superintending Engineer. The divisions are in, charge of Executive Engineers and Sub-divisions of Assistant Engineers or Deputy Engineers. The Sub-divisions are further divided into sections each in charge of an overseer. Nagpur, division I, has 28 overseers; division II, 18; Road Project subdivisions, 13 and Building Project sub-division, 8.

Superintending Engineer

The Superintending Engineer is responsible for administration and general professional control over public works in charge of the department. He has to inspect the state of various works within his circle and to satisfy himself that the system, of management prevailing is efficient and economical. He is required to ascertain efficiency of subordinate officers and petty establishments and to report whether the staff, employed in each division is actually necessary or adequate for the management. The Superintending Engineer is empowered to transfer and post Deputy Engineers and overseers within his circle in the interest of administration. However, Executive Engineers of divisions are consulted before posting these officers to particular sub-divisional charges under their control. It is also the duty of the Superintending Engineer to recommend removals or transfers of Executive Engineers from his own circle.

Under Superintending Engineer, Nagpur Circle, are three buildings and communications divisions, viz., Nagpur division Nos. I and II which comprise Nagpur and Bhandara districts and the Road Project division having jurisdiction over four districts of Nagpur, Bhandara, Chanda and Wardha.

Road project sub-division No. 1, Nagpur, has jurisdiction over Nagpur and Bhandara districts. The jurisdiction of Building Project sub-division at Nagpur extends over the districts of Nagpur, Bhandara, Chanda and Wardha.

In the district sector the Zilla Parishad has one District Engineer known as Parishad Engineer of the rank of the Executive Engineer with four or five Deputy Engineers under him.

As on March 31, 1962, of the 766.05 km. (476 miles) of metalled roads including bridges and culverts on these roads 255.886 km. (159 miles), were transferred to the Zilla Parishad for maintenance.

 
 
IRRIGATION AND POWER DEPARTMENT
 
 

IRRIGATION AND POWER

The Irrigation and Power Department deals with major and medium irrigation works, hydro-electric projects, minor irrigation works, water-supply and drainage works and flood control works.

Organisation

The department is headed by the Secretary to the Government who is assisted by Chief Engineers in charge of major and medium irrigation projects and water-supply and development schemes in the State and the Director of Minor Irrigation in charge of minor irrigation projects in the State. The Superintending Engineer who is responsible to the Chief Engineer and the Director of Minor Irrigation for the works in their respective spheres is placed in charge of a circle normally consisting of four to five divisions. The division is headed by the Executive Engineer. Each division normally comprises four to five sub-divisions. The sub-division is placed in charge of a sub-divisional officer which is divided further into four to five sections each to be in charge of an overseer. The section is generally formed for maintenance of about 2023.430 hectares (5,000 acres) of irrigated land or where capital expenditure of rupees one to two lakhs is involved.

Superintending Engineer

In Nagpur district the irrigation programme is implemented by the Superintending Engineer, Nagpur Irrigation Circle. He is in charge of Nagpur Irrigation division, Malguzari Tanks division, Minor Irrigation division (Bhandara) and Minor Irrigation division (Chanda).

The Water Resources Investigation division, Nagpur, is con-trolled by the Superintending Engineer, Water Resources Investigation circle, Poona, and it has been entrusted with water resources investigation programme.

The Superintending Engineer, Eastern Public Health circle, Nagpur, has jurisdiction over the Public Health Works division and Public Health Projects division at Nagpur. The public health engineering schemes in the district are attended to by the Parishad Engineer, Nagpur Zilla Parishad.

Ramtek Tank

The work on the Ramtek tank scheme was started in 1906 and was completed in 1913. The height of the main dam of the tank is 22.189 metres (72.8 feet) while the length is 229.210 metres (752 feet). The tank has a catchment area of 212.38 km.3 (82 square miles). The capacity of the tank is 114.935 million cubic metres (4,059 million cubic feet). It irrigates 9712.464 hectares and 809.372 hectares (24,000 and 2,000 acres) of kharif and rabi crops, respectively. It was constructed at a total cost of Rs. 29,11,886.

Dahegaon Tank

The Dahegaon tank was undertaken during the First Five-Year Dal Plan and has been completed at a cost of Rs. 23,000. It irrigates about 202.343 hectares (500 acres) of land.

Pindarabori Tank Scheme

The work of constructing an earthen dam across the Amla Pin measuring 15.265 metres (51 feet) in height and 1.059 km. (3,475 feet) in length was undertaken in 1959.60. The dam has a catchment area of 44.029 km.2 (17 square miles). The capacity of the tank will be 13.835 million cubic metres (488.61 million cubic feet). It is known as Pindarabori Tank Scheme and is estimated to cost Rs. 37.50 Lakhs. It will irrigate 2043.664 hectares (5,050 acres) of land.

Satighat Scheme

The Satighat scheme envisages an earthen dam over the Satinalla which will be 60.960 metres (200 feet) in length. It has a catchment area of 5.96 km.2 (2.30 square miles) and will have a capacity of 3.108 million cubic metres (109.54 million cubic feet). It will irrigate 485.623 hectares (1,200 acres) of land.

Wunna River Project

A medium irrigation scheme on the Wunna River in Nagpur tahsil is included in the Third Five-Year Plan. The Scheme is expected to cost Rs. 70 lakhs and will irrigate 6070.290 hectares (15,000 acres) on completion.

Government Central Workshop, Nagpur

The Government Central Workshop and Stores located at Nagpur is also under the administrative control of the Irrigation and Power department. The Workshop undertakes repairs of mechanical equipments including automobiles owned by various Government departments, manufacture of special equipments and machinery required by small-scale and cottage industries, hospitals, schools, etc., and gives facilities for training of skilled and semi-skilled artisans. The Government is further considering the proposal of setting up a Regional Workshop at Nagpur for the upkeep of heavy earth-moving machinery required for execution of ambitious major and medium irrigation programme in the Third Plan in Vidarbha region.

Water-Supply and Drainage.

The main functions of Public Health Engineering Organisation under the Irrigation and Power department is to plan and execute Government and municipal water-supply and drainage schemes, to scrutinise and to supervise water-supply and drainage schemes prepared and executed by local bodies through their own agencies, to give advice, so far as public health problems are concerned, to other departments of Government and to maintain water-works either owned by Government or by local bodies but entrusted to Government for running at the cost of the local bodies in the State.

The Executive Engineer, Public Health Works division, Nagpur, is in charge of the execution of water-supply and drainage schemes and Executive Engineer,, Public Health Project division, Nagpur, in charge of preparation of major water-supply and drainage schemes in Nagpur and other districts of Vidarbha and Marath-wada regions. These divisions are under the control of the Superintending Engineer, Eastern Public Health Circle, Nagpur.

 
 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
 

Organisation

Agriculture department, like many other departments, was split into two sectors, viz., State and district with the formation of the Zilla Parishads. Schemes such as town compost, sugarcane development, cotton extension, tahsil seed farms, experimental and research farms, soil conservation and gram sevak training centre have been retained under the State sector while those such as kharif and rabi campaigns, paddy pilot, horticultural development, construction of tahsil godowns, vidya mandir plots, air compressor and blasting and tractor ploughing, rural compost, fertiliser distribution, plant protection and appliances on 50 per cent., subsidy, green manuring, intensive cultivation of food crops and pulses, multiplication, distribution and stocking of seed, vegetable cultivation and distribution of cement, iron and steel have been transferred to the Zilla Parishad.

The department in the State sector is headed by the Director of Agriculture, Maharashtra State, Poona. The activities under the State sector are controlled by the Assistant Cotton Extension Officer who is subordinate to the Superintending Agricultural Officer, Nagpur. He is designated as Officer in charge of Residuary Activities.

District Agricultural Officer

The schemes under the Zilla Parishad are looked after by the District Agricultural Officer who is responsible to the Chief Executive Officer of the Zilla Parishad. He has also to work as the Secretary to the Agriculture Committee of the Zilla Parishad. He is assisted by three Agricultural Officers of whom one is in charge of kharif and rabi campaigns, the other in charge of the paddy pilot scheme and the third attached to the District Agricultural Officer to assist him in his day-to-day work. He has under him three Agricultural Supervisors, 28 Agricultural Assistants and other necessary staff.

Agricultural Schemes under Zilla Parishad

In what follows is given a short account of the schemes that are controlled by the Zilla Parishad.

Demonstration and Propaganda

There are 82 agricultural demonstration centres in the district where field demonstrations in improved agricultural practices are given on the lands owned by the private agriculturists under the supervision of gram sevaks in the blocks. General propaganda work is carried out by the Agricultural Officer with the help of gram sevaks and agricultural assistants. The district is divided into 13 blocks, viz., Nagpur, Ramtek, Katol, Saoner, Umrer, Bhiwapur, Kuhi, Mouda, Parseoni, Kamptee, Hingna, Kalmeshwar and Narkhed where agricultural programme is implemented through the Agricultural Extension Officers under the guidance of the Block Development Officers.

Tractor Ploughing and Blasting

Tractor ploughing is adopted in the areas selected by the Agricultural Committee of the Zilla Parishad with the aid of machinery and staff provided by the State. An Agricultural Supervisor, three Agricultural Assistants and one Patwari work on the tractor unit. The receipts on account of ploughing are credited to the Government. One blasting unit has also been provided for in the district.

Horticultural Development

The cultivators requiring planting orchards are advanced taccavi loans by the Collector from the State sector. The applications for taccavi are received by the Block Development Officers and Agricultural Officers and are submitted to the Collector after proper scrutiny and recommendations.

Crop-cutting experiments

Three types of crop-cutting experiments are conducted in the district covering assessment survey of kharif and rabi campaigns, crop-estimation survey of orange and crop-estimation survey of revenue circles. Where the work is carried on vigorously, the villages for the survey are selected on random sample basis.

Farmer’s Unions

Farmers unions numbering 1,103 with a total membership of 56,248 have been established in the district. The district farmers' union is yet to be registered under the Public Trusts Act.

Citrus Psylla Campaign

The staff working under the Zilla Parishad such as Agricultural Officer, Agricultural Supervisors and others arranges to spray insecticides under the directions of Agricultural Extension Officer on orange trees mainly in Katol, Narkhed and Kalmeshwai blocks. This is carried out with the help of the equipment supplied by the State Government. The spraying operations over 9712.464 hectares (24,000 acres) were completed till 1963.

Though all the programmes and activities are carried out by the department in the district sector, advice and guidance in technical matters is sought from the officers of the department in the State sector for proper and successful implementation the programme.
All the schemes in the State sector are now controlled by Superintending Agricultural Officer. Nagpur Division, though the Assistant Cotton Extension Officer in his office holds actual charge of the affairs.

Agricultural Schemes under State Sector

The following is a brief description of the schemes in the State sector.

Research and Experiment Farm at Tharsa

The Government experimental farm at Tharsa in Ramtek tahsil is in charge of an Agricultural Officer (Grade I) who is assisted by two Agricultural Supervisors and one Agricultural Kamdar. He has to work under the administrative control of the Principal, Gram Sevak Training Centre, Tharsa. It was established at Tharsa, at a distance of 38.4 km. (24 miles) from Nagpur, in the year 1910-11. The area of the farm stands at 49.606 hectares (122.58 acres). Mostly rabi crops like wheat, gram, jowar, linseed, peas, etc., are taken on the farm. Sugar-cane and paddy are the only perennial and kharif crops grown on the farm. The farm is irrigated from the Khindsi tank. Numbers of experiments on varietal and manurial aspects are allotted to this farm. The general cropping and manuring programme is approved by the Superintending Agricultural Officer, Nagpur Division, it affords practical training facilities to the trainees at the Gram Sevak Training Centre, Tharsa.

Gram Sevak Training Centre, Tharsa

An extension training centre was established at Tharsa by the then Madhya Pradesh Government on April 18, 1955, to train the personnel required to man the Community Development and National Extension Service projects. It provides training facilities in extension methods regarding agriculture, animal husbandry, social education, public health, co-operation, etc. The extension training centre at Tharsa has been converted into the gram sevak training centre having integrated courses of two years duration from March 15, 1959. The Government farm at Tharsa provides facilities for practical training to the trainees at the centre.

Soil Conservation

Soil conservation activities in the district arc in charge of the Sub-Divisional Soil Conservation Officer, Katol, who is also in charge of the activities in Bhandara district. He has to work under the control of the Deputy Director of Agriculture (Engineering). Nagpur, He is assisted in his work by Agricultural Supervisors, Agricultural Assistants and other necessary staff. The actual intensive work regarding soil conservation is restricted to a compact zone within a radius of 16 km. (ten miles) from the Sub-Divisional headquarters at Katol.

Agricultural College

The first step towards the provision of agricultural education in the then Central Provinces was taken in 1888 with the formation of an agricultural class with a course of two years duration. In the course of a few years a separate Agricultural Research Institute was erected. The college conferred Diploma in Agriculture on successful candidates. In 1916 the duration of the course was changed to four years. The Diploma classes of the college were affiliated to the Nagpur University on July 29, 1925. From 1938 was started the Degree Course in agri-culture which subsequently provided education up to postgraduate level.

The agricultural college farm at Nagpur covers an area of 99.051 hectares (244.76 acres) of black cotton soil. Jowar, cotton, groundnut, paddy, tut, udid mug, wheat, gram, linseed and sugarcane are the main crops taken from the farm.

 
 
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY DEPARTMENT
 

 

FUNCTONS

The Animal Husbandry department deals with the treatment of sick animals, control of cattle epidemics and castrations. The department administers the work of control and destruction of ticks, advises people in the hygienic methods of animal management and participates in the various cattle fairs and shows held at various places in the State by opening veterinary stalls for propaganda.

Animal Husbandry Officer

The District Animal Husbandry Officer controls the activities of the department and is responsible to the Agricultural Officer of the Zilla Parishad. However, in technical matters, he is responsible to the Director of Animal Husbandry, Maharashtra State, Poona. Six Veterinary Officers are placed in charge of the animal husbandry activities in the panchayat samitis. There are 21 stockmen working under the Veterinary Officers who are expected to give first aid to 20 to 30 villages under their jurisdictions and to treat ailing animals, to castrate the scrub bulls and to vaccinate the animals against different contagious diseases.

Veterinary Hospital, Nagpur

The District Veterinary hospital at Nagpur is attached to the veterinary college where the students carry out their practicals. The veterinary dispensaries have been established at Narkhed, Kuhi, Kalmeshwar, Katol. Ramtek, Saoner and Umrer. The veterinary aid centres are established at Sawargaon, Mandle, Kuhi, Kamptee, Butibori, Jalalkheda, Nand, Vadoda, Mowad. Khabala, Veltur, Aroli, Ashta, Vihirgaon, Bhiwapur, Mohpa and Pipla Keolaram. The only branch-veterinary "dispensary in the district is located at Fetri. In addition to these dispensaries and aid centres, the department has also established poultry demonstration centres at Mouda and Kalmeshwar, a poultry unit at Narkhed and has taken up key village schemes in Barshingi, Kodamendhi, Haladgaon and Kondale villages.

FOREST

 
 

FOREST DEPARTMENT

Organisation

The Chief Conservator of Forests is the Head of the Forest Department in the State with headquarters at Poona. For administrative purposes, the whole State is divided into six circles as shown below :—

Name of Circle

(1)

Headquarters

(2)

1.
Nasik Circle Nasik.
2.
Poona Circle Poona.
3.
Nagpur Circle Nagpur.
4.
Amravati Circle Amravati.
5.
Chanda Circle Nagpur.
6.
Bombay Circle Thana.


At the headquarters of each Circle is a Conservator of Forests.

The Conservators have under them Divisional Forest Officers and Sub-Divisional Forest Officers, to look after the administration of the divisions and independent sub-divisions, respectively. The Divisional Forest Officers belong to the Maharashtra Forest Service, Class I, and the Sub-Divisional Forest Officers to Maharashtra Forest Service, Class II. The divisions in some cases are divided into sub-divisions which are in charge of Sub-Divisional Forest Officers. The divisions or sub-divisions, as the case may be, are divided into small executive parts called ranges and each range is managed by a Range Forest Officer, under the control of the Divisional Forest Officer or Sub-Divisional Forest Officer, as the case may be. The Range Forest Officer is a non-gazetted subordinate officer (Class III) who is usually trained at one of the forest colleges of India, i.e., those at Dehra Dun and Coimbatore. Each range is sub-divided into rounds and each round is managed by a Round Officer or a Forester who is usually trained at one of the Forest Classes in the State. Finally each round is sub-divided into beats and each beat is in charge of a beat guard.

Working Plans

All the forest area in Nagpur district in charge of the Forest Department is included in the Nagpur Forest Division. This division is controlled by the Conservator of Forests, Nagpur. The Divisional Forest Officer is in charge of the administration of the division.

In the year 1879, Government declared the forests in Nagpur Division as 'Protected' under Indian Forests Act (VII of 1878). These forests, thereafter, were constituted into Reserved Forests under the Indian Forests Act during the period from 1879 to 1893. The working of forests was nor, however, regulated then by any scheme or plan. It was not till 1895 that the systematic management was taken up by drawing up the first working plan by Mr. Dobbs.

These plans cover the forest area of 1,326.365 km2 (512.11 sq. miles) of Reserved Forests in Nagpur Division. Since then four working plans have been prepared for these forests covering the period from 1895 to 1912, 1912 to 1935, 1935-36 to 1946-47 and 1947-48 to 1956-57. These plans were prepared by the different officers of the department.

After the abolition of proprietary rights in forests in 1951, 960-294 km2 (370-77 sq. miles) of forests formerly privately owned were transferred for management to the Forest Department.

Regeneration and Maintenance

Forests are managed by the Forest Department for the proper performance of the productive and protective functions. Protective functions imply that they are to be managed in such a way as to preserve the physical features, make the climate more equable and maintain the fertility of lands by checking erosion and regulating the flow of water. They are to be guarded against damages from fires, thefts, encroachment on forest lands, misuse or rights and privileges, etc. For productive functions the department envisages management of forest in such a way so as to provide for certain needs indispensable to the people and a variety of products of commercial importance.

Systems of Management

Since the climate throughout the district is more or less the same, i.e., hot and dry, annual rainfall being 1270 mm. (50") and maximum summer temperature being 4627°C. (116°F.), the forests (met with are of one main type, i.e., southern tropical dry deciduous forests' of Champion's classification.

For the purpose of management the following broad classes of forests are distinguished, according to the function they can best fulfil: —

(i) Protected forests.
(ii) Tree forests.
(iii) Minor forests.
(iv) Pasture lands.
(v) Remaining forests, i.e., grass reserves and recreation reserves, forest villages, etc.

Protected forests include all the areas, which contain precipitous and very steep slopes. Hilly areas of Pench ranges on either side of the Pench river have been included under them. These are preserved in the interest of soil conservation and water-supply. These are managed under " section-cum-improvement system " and constitute the ' protection—working circle'.

Tree forests include all areas capable of producing large size timber, especially teak. Teak bearing areas of West Pench, Deolapar and Ramtek ranges, and other ranges are grouped with these. The management is of high forest conversion system. The following working circles have been formed:

Pench High Forest Conversion Working Circle.—Areas in West Pench, Deolapar and Ramtek ranges are included in this working circle. Rotation is of 80 years. Teak trees of 1.22 metre (4 feet) girth at breast height are obtained from these forests.

General High Forest Working Circle.—Better type of forests in Kondhali and Umrer ranges are included in this working circle. Rotation is of 60 years. Teak trees of .914 metre (3 feet) girth at breast height are obtainable from these forests.

Minor forests include all areas which contain inferior tree growth and which are capable of producing small timber up to .61 to .76 metre (24"—30") girth at breast height, poles and fire-wood. Local demand for fodder and grazing is also met with. The system adopted is coppice-with-reserves. Rotation period is of 48 years.

 
Pasture forests include areas in which the primary object el management is to provide fodder and grass to the maximum extent possible, consistent with the preservation and improvement of pastures. These forests contain very little tree growth of value. Grazing units have been formed providing rotational grazing. Pasture working circle has been constituted for the purpose.

Miscellaneous forests include all grass birs and areas under forest villages. Grass birs are closed permanently to grazing, catering to the need for fodder grass. Forest village areas are meant for the establishment of permanent source of labour supply for forest works. A miscellaneous working circle has also been constituted in these areas.

Besides these, there are overlapping working circles for bamboo working and semal working.

Exploitation

The forests in this division arc exploited to obtain sustained supplies of timber and other forest products required for industry, communications and defence and to realise the maximum annual revenue for all time. With this in view, equi-productive annual areas called 'Coupes' equal to the number of years of felling cycle or rotation are laid out for working. Thus, coupes form the unit of exploitation and are mainly worked through the agency of contractors. The areas to he worked through the agency of contractors are sold by public auction annually. The contractors arc governed by a set of rules called ' Forest Contract Rules'. The policy of the department now is to replace contractors by co-operatives.

Areas needing special treatment or areas unsold are worked depart mentally. Minor forest produce is removed on forest rates passed under the sanctioned schedule of rates.

The total outturn of timber and other important forest produce extracted annually (from 1958-59 to 1960-61) from the division is as follows :—

OUTTURN OF FOREST PRODUCE.

Year

(1)

Timber in 1,000 cubic metres*

(2)

Fuel in 1,000 cubic metres*

(3)

Bamboos in terms of value

(4)

Other forest produce in terms of value

(5)

Rs.
Rs.
1958-59
34.625
(1,236.60)
1,049.297
(37,474.90)
5,190
4,06,627
1959-60
16.462
(587.94)
88.532
(3,161.86)
3,092
3,63,969
1960-61
12.146
(433.79)
68.751
(2,455.38)
10,197
3,78,841

*Figures in bracket denote figures in 1,000 cubic feet.

 

The total net revenue and expenditure of the division for three years from 1958-59 to 1960-61 is given below: —

Year

(1)

Revenue

(2)

Expenditure

(3)

Surplus

(4)

Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
1958-59
39,63,208
7,48,527
32,14,681
1959-60
45,99,717
9,95,097
36,04,620
1960-61
35,63,295
7,53,390
28,29,905

Mining leases and prospecting licences

The areas of Ramtek, West Pencil and Deolapar ranges are rich in manganese ore. Annual revenue on account of dead and surface . rent of the mining leases is collected to the tune of Rs. 70,000 to Rs. 80..000.


Forest Settlement

Out of 2,286.959 km2 (882.88 sq. miles) of forests under the department in Nagpur Division 1,326.365 km2 (512.11 sq. miles) have already been constituted into reserved forests since 1879. After abolition of proprietary rights in 1951, 960.294 km2 (370.77 sq. miles) of privately owned forests were transferred to Forest department for management. They were declared as protected forests in 1955 and notification under Section 4 of Indian Forests Act was issued to constitute them into reserved forests.

Co-operation in Forestry

In the exploitation of forest produce the contractors' agency is being slowly replaced by cooperative societies. Contract areas, i.e., coupes, are leased to the societies at prices fixed by Forest department. The societies remove the produce sold to them under the technical guidance and supervision of the department.

During 1959-60 there were four co-operative societies which were allotted four coupes, in 1960-61 five societies were allotted three coupes and during 1961-62, eight societies were allotted eleven coupes.

Apart from timber and fuel coupes, the societies have been allotted bamboo coupes, tendu units and grass birs.

Wild Life Preservation

To regulate licenced shooting, the forest area is divided into ' shooting blocks'. List of shooting blocks is published by the Conservator of Forests in the State Gazette annually. Shooting in the reserved forests is controlled and regulated by the issue of permits for 15 days or one month by Divisional Forest Officer with the approval of the Conservator of Forests. There arc 22 shooting blocks in Nagpur Forest Division.

Scheme under the Five-Year Plans.

During the Second Five-Year Plan following works were taken up in Nagpur Division: —

Scheme

Works undertaken
Target achieved
Expenditure
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
     
Rs.
(1)
Construction of Roads, dams, etc. Roads—1
32.18 km. {20 miles) length.
66,548
Dams and bunds—2.
2 dams.
1,41,861
(2)
Construction of buildings. R. F. O.s quarters—1
27 buildings
1,14,138
F. G. Nakas and other staff quarters—4
(3)
Raising plantations of teak and semal. Plantation of teak and semal—3.
827.572 hectares
(2,045 acres).
1,25,995
(4)
Survey and Demarcation of forests. Survey and demarcation— 1.
453.248 km.2
(175 Sq. miles).
70,199
(5)
Establishment of nurseries. Wet nursery— 1
..
3,515
(6)
Provision of Mobile squad. Mobile squad—1
..
26,324
(7)
Other schemes Other schemes—4
..
22,171
  Total Schemes
16
Total expenditure
4,43,751


The following schemes are under the Third Five-Year Plan:-

Scheme

(1)

Target

(2)

Expenditure

(3)

     
Rs.
(1)
Establishment of nurseries 2 Nurseries at Tangla and Ran-bodi.
3,900
(2)
Raising of bamboo plantations. 8.094 hectares (20 acres) in Kondhalirange. Pre-monsoon works over 75 acres.
1,486
(3)
Afforestation of catchment areas Pre-monsoon works over 24.281 hectares (60 acres) in Kondhali range.
8,685
(4)
Forest Village Panchayat scheme 2 villages.
1,000

Agriculture.

Cultivable land is given free of cost to the villagers who settle in forest villages. Forest villages are established with a view to making provision for adequate forest labourers and to provide wages to the poor people. There are 18 forest villages in Nagpur Division. Every facility including that of taccavi loans is given to these villages so as to encourage them in adopting better cultivation methods and in increasing the food production.

Relation with the public.

The produce from the private forests is permitted to be removed by the villagers as per provision of the Nistar Patraks and Wajib-ul-arz of each village on the passes issued by Nistar Committees for the bona fide use of the villagers. The passes are issued by the village Mukadams where no Nistar Committees have been formed. The quantum of Nistar is fixed by the Government. Small timber, khod and firewood for Nistar is given to agriculturist from coupes under marking of forests on forest rates.

Roads

The division is well served by an excellent net-work of roads. There are adequate forest roads except in the Pencil Valley. Forest roads in the division are fair weather roads which are motorable only in fair season.

Buildings

Besides the residential quarters for forest staff in different ranges, the forest resthouses are situated at Kholdhoda in Umrer range, Sillari in Deolapar range and Surera, Salaighat, Nagalwadi and Ghat-Pendri in West Pench range. The forest inspection bungalows are located at Botezari in Umrer range and Paoni in Ramtek range. The only school in forest villages is at Manegaon in Deolapar range.

INDUSTRIES
 

DIRECTORATE OF INDUSTRIES

ORGANISATION

The work of the Directorate of Industries is mainly confined to the development and progress of cottage, small-scale and large-scale industries in the State.

Deputy Director of Industries, Nagpur.

The officer in charge of cottage, small-scale and large-scale industries in the Nagpur district is the Deputy Director of Industries (Class I, State Industries Service) who has his headquarters at Nagpur, and whose jurisdiction extends over the districts of Bhandara, Aimravati, Buldhana, Akola, Wardha, Yeotmal and Chanda also. He works directly under the Industries Commissioner, Maharashtra State, Bombay. The Deputy Director of Industries, Nagpur, is also in charge of work connected with the administration of the Bombay Weights and Measures (Enforcement) Act, 1958, and Rules thereunder. Under the above Act, his functions relate to enforcement and administration of the Weights and Measures Act, collection of revenue in the form of fees for verification and/or re-verification and stamping of weights and measures, etc. He is also authorised to grant licences as repairers of and/or dealing in weights and measures to the applicants complying with the requirements of the said Act and Rules, under intimation to the Directorate of Industries. He renders all possible assistance to the owners of factories, and collects industrial and commercial information. He undertakes investigations in connection with cases of trade disputes with parties in the district referred to by Indian embassies abroad or foreign embassies in India. Breaches of the provision of the Trade Marks Act, 1958 or Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act (XII of 1950) are also investigated by him. In addition, he is empowered to sanction loans under the State-Aid to Industries Rules to the limit of Rs. 3,000 in each case, to applicants in his jurisdiction. His miscellaneous duties extend over investigation of applications (made for industrial purposes) from parties in his area for a licence under the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951, land acquisition, power, water, erection of buildings and for issue of essentiality certificate in connection with the import applications for raw materials and machinery, export and purchase of controlled materials such as iron, steel, cement, etc.
The Deputy Director of Industries is assisted in his work by an Industries Officer, three Senior Industries Inspectors and others.

Industries Inspectors

The duties assigned to the former Inspectors of Weights and Measures under the Bombay Weights and Measures (Enforcement) Rules are now carried out by the Industries Inspectors. The main purpose of the Bombay Weights and Measures (Enforcement) Act is to provide for the adoption and compulsory 'use of standard weights and measures in the State. No weights or measures or weighing or measuring instruments may be sold, delivered or used for trade, unless they have been verified or re-verified in the manner prescribed by rules made under the said Act and stamped by an Inspector with a stamp of verification. It is the duty of the Inspectors to carry out verification and stamping and to collect the fees.

Weights and Measures Acts.

The Standards of Weights and Measures Act, 1956, has. established the Standard Weights and Measures based on Metric system in India. The Government of Maharashtra have enacted the complementary legislation, viz., the Bombay Weights and Measures (Enforcement) Act, 1958, for the enforcement of the standard weights and measures, based on Metric system in the State and have framed necessary rules thereunder.

Collection of Statistics

The Industries Inspectors have also to carry out the duties in connection with collection of statistics from scheduled industries coming under the first schedule of the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951, employing 10—49 workers. Government of India have delegated the powers for collecting quarterly production statistics from such units, under the statutory Rules, viz., Industrial Undertakings (Collection of Information and Statistics) Rules, 1959. The units are required to submit quarterly statistical returns, in the prescribed pro forma. The Inspectors have to ensure that the factories concerned maintain proper accounts and registers and have to render assistance in completing the returns. They have also to attend to the work connected with the conduct of ad hoc surveys of various small-scale industries at the instance of the State and Central Governments. The Industries Inspectors have also to carry out duties in connection with the registration of small-scale industrial undertakings in order to know the progress of various small-scale industries in the State.

Cottage Industries

With the transfer of activities of cottage industries to the Directorate with effect from December 1, 1960, the Deputy Director of Industries, Nagpur, has to look after the work of the following schemes transferred from the Cottage Industries department, viz., establishment of a Central Textile Institute at Nagpur, development of wood-works and carpentary at Nagpur, expansion of industrial institute at Nagpur, development of the fruit preservation industry on small-scale industry basis at Nagpur, development of wood-works and carpentry at Nagpur, development of small-scale woollen industry in Vidarbha, scheme for village industries, Vidarbha and tribal welfare section, Vidarbha. Subsequently, with the establishment of the Nagpur Zilla Parishad the work has been transferred to the Industries and Co-operation Officer of the Zilla Parishad.

 
CO-OPERATION
 

An agro-industrial economy like that of India with her emphasis on socio-economic change has a vast scope for the organisation and development of co-operative activity. The lead in this behalf is provided for by the Co-operative department of the Government. The activities of the Co-operative department extend to the fields of rural finance, agricultural marketing, Industrial co-operative and money-lending business in the district. All these activities are governed under the Maharashtra Co-operative Societies Act, 1961.

Organisation.

With the formation of the Zilla Parishads, co-operation has come under the dual control of the Zilla Parishad and the State Government. The Co-operative department of the Zilla Parishad is responsible for the registration, organisation, supervision, inspection, etc., of all types of co-operatives in rural areas, having authorised share capital up to Rs. 50,000 or working capital up to Rs. 5 lakhs. It has also to control and supervise all regulated markets. All other schemes are looked after by the department in the State sector.

The Registrar of Co-operative Societies is the head of the Co-; operative department at the State level. At the divisional level is the Divisional Joint Registrar assisted by a Divisional Deputy Registrar and three Divisional Assistant Registrars. The Divisional Special Auditor is in charge of the audit section.

In the State sector Nagpur district is placed in charge of the District Deputy Registrar of Co-operative Societies, Nagpur, a Class I gazetted officer of the Maharashtra Co-operative Service. He is assisted by two Assistant Registrars whose jurisdiction extends over an area specified by the District Deputy Registrar after taking into account the actual work load. Under the Assistant Registrars are the Co-operative Officer and the Assistant Co-operative Officer. The Assistant Registrars enjoy all powers under the Maharashtra Co-operative Societies Act, 1961, except those under sections 64 and 64-A of the former Act of 1925 which has been replaced by the 1961 Act. They also work as Assistant Registrars of Money Lenders for their respective jurisdictions.

Since the formation of the Zilla Parishad one of the three Assistant Registrars has been transferred to it. He works as the Industries and Co-operation Officer of the Zilla Parishad. He is directly responsible to the Chief Executive Officer. He is dele-gated certain powers of the Registrar of Co-operative Societies so far as registration of new societies and amendments to the bye-laws of certain types of societies coming under the purview of the Zilla Parishad are concerned. He has also to work on, the Co-operation Committee of the Zilla Parishad.

The Co-operative Officer and the Assistant'-Co-operative Officer are in charge of the activities of the department under the State sector. They are appointed by the Registrar of Co-operative Societies and the Divisional Joint Registrar of Co-operative Societies, respectively. The Assistant Registrar of Co-operative Societies who is the Industries and Co-operation Officer is assisted by the Block Development Officers and the Extension Officers.
The main responsibility of the supervising staff is confined to detailed supervision over the working of all agricultural credit and multi-purpose societies in the district. They are expected to supervise every society in their charge. There arc, at present, 14 Supervisors working in the district whose appointments are made by the Divisional Joint Registrar, Nagpur. They are placed under the administrative control of the Assistant Registrars. In pursuance of the policy of democratic decentralisation, supervising unions have been organised at 13 development blocks. The Assistant Co-operative Officers work as the ex officio Secretaries of these unions. Services of the Supervisors are also placed at the disposal of these unions for inspection and supervision of affiliated primary societies.

District Supervision Committee

The District Supervision Committee is an ad hoc body which has taken up the task of appointment and allotment of work to the supervising unions. It works as a link between the tahsil (Block) supervising unions and the State Board of Supervision. It has recommendatory powers.

Education and training in co-operation and propaganda for the spread of co-operative movement are carried out by the District Co-operative Board under the guidance of the Maharashtra State Co-operative Union Ltd., Bombay. The membership of the Board is of two classes, viz., ordinary, consisting of all co-operative societies in the district, and associate, consisting of individuals. A nominee of the financing agency (The Nagpur District Central Co-operative Bank Ltd., Nagpur), the District Deputy Registrar and the Executive Officer of the Maharashtra State Co-operative Union are ex officio members of the Board. It has a membership of 600.

Audit.

Section 81 of the Maharashtra Co-operative Societies Act, 1961, provides for statutory audit of every society at least once in a year by the Registrar or by persons authorised by him. In the district it is the responsibility of the Divisional Special Auditor, Co-operative Societies, Nagpur.

The work of organisation of industrial co-operatives has, since the formation of the Zilla Parishad, been transferred to it and the Block Development Officers and Extension Officers look after this work. The services of Industrial Supervisors and Stamping Inspectors are also placed at their disposal.

Money-lending.

The salient features of the Bombay Money-lenders Act are licensing of money-lenders, maintenance of accounts by moneylenders in prescribed forms and restrictions on rates of interests.

The Joint Registrar of Co-operative Societies, Nagpur, works as the Divisional Joint Registrar of Money-lenders. The Assistant Registrar of Co-operative Societies works as Assistant Registrar of Money-lenders in his respective jurisdiction while < the District Deputy Registrar works as Registrar of Money-lenders in the district and issues licences to money-lenders and is responsible for the administration of the Bombay Money-lenders Act. The Co-operative Officers have to work in dual capacity both as Co-operative Officers and Inspectors of Money-lenders.

Accomplishments.

The co-operative movement in Nagpur district is developed A more or less on progressive lines. The (Maharashtra) Bombay Provincial Co-operative Institute has established a Regional Cooperative School at Nagpur. It imparts training in co-operation to the employees of the Co-operative department, and institutions and supervisors, bank inspectors and secretaries of multi-purpose societies and purchase and sale unions.

Vidarbha Co-operative Marketing Society Ltd.

The Vidarbha Co-operative Marketing Society is an apex non-credit society having jurisdiction over the whole of Vidarbha region. It channelises distribution of fertilisers and oil engines and acts as wholesale distributor of sugar for the district. It pools cotton from the cotton growing region through purchase and sales societies affiliated to it and also undertakes marketing of agricultural produce particularly in the paddy growing tracts. The society has 141 affiliated societies and 452 individuals as members. It has constructed seven godowns. It receives fertilisers from Government on consignment basis and supplies them to the cultivators in the remotest villages through its agents and sub-agents which are co-operative institutions only. It has received financial assistance in the form of loans and subsidies to the tune of Rs. 1.4 lakhs for construction of godowns. The Government have also contributed Rs. 2.45 lakhs to the share capital of the society.

Nagpur Orange Grower’s Co-operative Association Ltd.

Nagpur Orange Growers Co-operative Association is a marketing body so far as marketing of oranges, other fruits and vegetables is concerned. It renders technical advice particularly to orange growers. The Association has opened a sales depot at Delhi where the oranges are in great demand. It has also started a processing plant. To this Association are affiliated 49 primary societies of orange growers, credit facilities to which are provided for by the co-operative banks on condition that they should market their produce through the Association. The Government have contributed Rs. 11.50 lakhs towards the share capital of the Association.

Co-operative Associations for Chilli and Betel-leaves

A Chilli Growers Association has been established at Umrer activities of which extend over marketing and processing of chillis. Government have contributed Rs. 3,400 towards its share capital. A Betel-Leaves Co-operative Association has also been established at Ramtek.

Co-operative Banks

Banking and credit facilities to co-operatives in Nagpur district are provided mainly by the Vidarbha Co-operative Bank, the Nagpur District Central Co-operative Bank and the Nagpur Land Development Bank. The Vidarbha Co-operative Bank channelises the funds received from the Reserve Bank of India to the central financing agencies. It transacts commercial banking business also alongwith playing its role as an apex institution for supplying agricultural finance. It is also an apex institution as far as primary land mortgage banks in the Vidarbha region are concerned. The Nagpur District Central Co-operative Bank makes credit facilities available to agriculturists through the primary societies affiliated to it. The Government have contributed Rs. 7.75 lakhs towards its share capital of Rs, 2.3.25 lakhs. The eight branches of this bank are spread over all the five tahsils of the district. The Nagpur Land Development Bank makes long-term credit available to the agriculturists towards liquidation of old debts and towards land improvement of permanent nature. Loans up to 50 per cent of the value of the landed property are sanctioned on mortgage of the said landed property.

Service co-operatives

The number of service co-operatives in the district stood at 484 on September 30, 1960. Of these, 240 societies were granted subsidy at Rs. 500 each towards the appointment of trained secretaries. Of the 23 multi-purpose societies, Government have contributed Rs. 7,500 each to the share capital of 22 societies. Nine societies have also constructed godowns with the aid of the financial assistance of Rs. 10,000 each received from the Government. Almost all of these societies are engaged in the distribution of foodgrains, fertilisers and improved seeds.

Fisheries Societies

Of the six fisheries societies only one at Ramtek is flourishing. All others have almost stopped their activities due to the nonavailability of tanks. The society at Ramtek gets technical guidance from the Fisheries department of the State. It collects the fry from members and sells in the common markets.

Dairy Societies

There are 29 dairy societies in the district. The introduction of the Government milk scheme in Nagpur has encouraged their activities. The working of these dairy societies is regulated by the federation of these dairy societies organised on September 22, 1960, for the purpose. Of these societies ten have received financial assistance from the Government to the tune of Rs. 11,000.

Processing Societies

The pioneering work in respect of the co-operative processing societies has been done with the establishment of the Cooperative Cotton Ginning and Pressing Society at Nagpur. It has received from Government Rs. 50,000 towards its share capital.

Housing Societies

There were in 1960 54 housing societies in the district inclusive of 37 working under low income group housing scheme having received loans from the Vidarbha Housing Board. Of these 37 societies, 35 are at Nagpur and one each at Katol and Kalmeshwar. The societies in Nagpur have constructed 1,767 tenements. A wholesale market with residential accommodation for shopkeepers is also under construction on co-operative basis.

Of the twelve Backward Class Co-operative Housing Societies one c has received financial assistance to the tune of Rs. 2,25,000 from Government towards the construction of 75 houses. A society at Bhiwapur constructed 25 houses with Government assistance. A society working under the subsidised industrial housing scheme has been granted a loan of Rs. 1,61,000 towards the construction of 100 tenements.

Consumer Societies

In the district, there are 272 stores established by the consumers societies including 16 stores in rural areas conducted by multipurpose societies. Their activities are mostly confined to running fair price shops.

Farming Societies

There are four farming societies in the district. All of them are joint farming societies. The society at Khandala in Ramtek tahsil has been granted financial assistance of Rs. 24,000 as loan and Rs. 4,000 as Government contribution towards its share capital as it has been selected for intensive development. These societies command, in aggregate, an area of 344.388 hectares {851 acres).

Fillip to the movement

The development of the co-operative' movement in the district is particularly visible as far as agricultural credit co-operatives, housing and consumer goods societies are concerned. The direct participation of Government has given stimulus to the first two kinds of societies while the Government's policy of entrusting distribution of foodgrains, sugar and other essential commodities to the co-operatives has indirectly given fillip to the third type. As per the declared policy of the Government steps are being taken to link credit with marketing and processing.

FISHERIES
 

FISHERIES DEPARTMENT

Organisation

Prior to the reorganisation of States in 1956, an Assistant Fishery Development Officer posted at Nagpur was in charge of the eight districts of Vidarbha, and three districts of Chhindwada, Seoni and Betul now under Madhya Pradesh. The Assistant Fishery Development Officer then posted at Bhandara , was in charge of fish seed collection scheme, with statewide jurisdiction. With the reorganisation of States, the posts of Assistant Fishery Development Officers were redesignatcd as Superintendents of Fisheries. The Superintendent of Fisheries, Bhandara, was then immediately placed in charge of all the fisheries activities in Bhandara district, while Superintendent of Fisheries, Nagpur, looked after the work in the remaining seven districts of Vidarbha. Both the Superintendents were directly responsible to the Director of Fisheries, Bombay.

In 1958, under the Second Five-Year Plan scheme, one more post of Superintendent of Fisheries was created at Chanda with jurisdiction over Chanda and Yeotmal districts, as well as a post of Assistant Director of Fisheries at Nagpur as a Regional Officer for Vidarbha region. Thus the Superintendent of Fisheries, Nagpur, has now jurisdiction over Nagpur, Wardha, Amravati, Akola and Buldhana districts.

 
The Assistant Director of Fisheries is the planning, supervising and co-ordinating officer for all the activities of the department in the three fisheries divisions of Vidarbha region. He represents the department at the meetings of the Divisional Development Council and its sub-committees.

Superintendent of Fisheries.

The duties of the Superintendent of Fisheries are as follows : —
(i) To carry out survey of new sheets of water to assess their suitability for pisciculture.
(ii) To stock tanks and ponds with suitable varieties of fish every year.
(iii) To construct nurseries and to nurture fry in them.
(iv) To supervise the tanks.
(v) To form and supervise Fisheries Co-operative Societies and to devise ways and means to improve the socio-economic conditions of fishermen.
(vi) To investigate applications from fishermen for loan and subsidy from the Government.
(vii) To watch and effect loan recoveries and credit the money into the Treasury.
(viii) To associate and encourage fishermen to take advantage of different schemes of the department.
(ix) To collect statistics of fish and other data pertaining to fisheries, and fishermen of the district.
(x) To give technical guidance to the deep tank fishing operations conducted by the societies.
(xi) To supervise the working of Ice and Cold Storage Plant.
(xii) To supervise in general the work of development of fisheries in the districts.

 
 
STATE ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION
 

MAHARASHTRA STATE ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION

Historical Background

The road transport in Nagpur district was nationalised long before the district was merged in Maharashtra State consequent upon the reorganisation of States. In 1946, the then Government took over the managing agency of the Provincial Transport Company from Messrs. Mechanical Transport. It continued up to August 31, 1955, as a joint stock company under the Indian Companies Act. From September 1, 1955, it was completely taken over by the Government and was named as "Provincial Transport Services".

The General Manager was the administrative head of the undertaking and was responsible to the Board of Management. The Board comprised the Motor Transport Controller, Maharashtra State, Bombay; the District Commercial Superintendent, South Eastern Railway, Nagpur; the Road Superintendent, Central and Western Railways, Bombay; the Superintending Engineer, Roads and Buildings, Nagpur, and a non-official member.

The General Manager was assisted by the Assistant Manager who looks after administrative and traffic matters and the Divisional Mechanical Engineer who looks after technical work. The undertaking was divided into sections for administration, establishment, traffic, audit, accounts and statistics, civil engineering, labour and stores. The Labour Officer used to look after all matters relating to labour relations with the administration.

The undertaking had seven depots out of which four were located at Nagpur and one each at Yeotmal, Amravati and Talegaon. Of these, the one at Talegaon was a sub-depot.

In 1959-60 the undertaking had a fleet of 315 road worthy vehicles of which 47 vehicles were attached to the Nagpur City Service. On an average 214 vehicles used to ply in rural areas and 36 in urban areas.

During the year 1959-60, the undertaking carried 1, 58, 11,797 passengers. The daily average number of passengers carried during the year worked out to 43,320.

Since the merger of Nagpur district in the then Bombay State in 1956, the Provincial Transport Services was brought under the overall control of the State Government. In order to coordinate the activities and organisation of the three state transport organisations in the State, viz., the Bombay State Road Transport Corporation, the Provincial Transport Services and the Marathwada State Transport, they were merged into a single Corporation in July 1961. The new body was termed as the Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation with headquarters at Bombay. As such, the Provincial Transport Services was merged in the Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation from July 1961.

Organisation.

For administrative convenience of operating the transport services, a division is created at Nagpur. The Nagpur division (Till 1964 Nagpur division extended its jurisdiction over Nagpur, Wardha, Chanda, Yeotmal, Amravati and Bhandara districts.) comprises Nagpur and some other districts of Vidarbha. The Divisional Controller who is a Class I Officer is the head of the division. He is immediately under the control of the General Manager, Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation. The Controller has under him the following departments and branches, viz., (1) administration, (2) traffic, (3) mechanical engineering, (4) accounts and audit, (5) statistics, (6) security, (7) stores, (8) secretarial, and (9) regional workshop. He is assisted by Class II Officers who are charged with definite functional responsibilities.

The Divisional Traffic Officer is in charge of all matters related to traffic operations. The Divisional Mechanical Engineer looks after workshops and repairs. He is assisted by the Divisional Works Superintendent Accounts section is directly under the Divisional Accounts Officer.

The light and heavy repairs of the buses arc carried out at the divisional workshop at Nagpur. The vehicles, after a certain period, are routed to the divisional workshop for preventive maintenance and docking.

The Nagpur bus depot is built in modern style and furnishes the required facilities to the travelling public and operating staff. It provides for a waiting hall, platforms, booking windows, cloakroom, canteen, refreshment room, sanitary and water-supply arrangement. A terminus station for Nagpur City Bus Service has also been constructed at Sitabuldi at Nagpur. (For details refer Chapter 7 —Communications.) Shelters are provided for at major bus stops in the city. The city bus services have been augmented to a great extent recently.* Buses to distant routes run from Nagpur.

 
 
 
 
 
 
METEOROLOGICAL
 
 

METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT

The Director, Regional Meteorological Centre, Nagpur, is the controlling officer of the Meteorological department in the Vidarbha region of the State and in the Madhya Pradesh.

The department has to provide day-to-day weather reports, aviation and non-aviation weather forecasts and warnings, etc. The department also issues Farmers Weather Bulletin containing an outlook of weather for 48 hours for their benefit.

The Regional Meteorological Centre at Nagpur has been divided into (a) Main Meteorological Office, (b) Weather Radar Observatory, (c) Radio Sonde and Pawin Observatory, (d) Radiation measurements, (e) Sterics Observatory and (f) Pilot Balloon Observatory. A class four meteorological observatory is situated in the Mayo Hospital, Nagpur. Ten raingauge stations in the district are located at Nagpur. Umrer, Ramtek, Katol, Saoner, Deolapar, Parseoni, Khindsi. Tharsa and Nagpur farm.